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SAT II Biology: Taxonomy
arwa saat biology taxonomy
Terms in this set (71)
What is a Taxonomy? What types of organisms does it include?
taxonomy is a system that classifies and names all organisms
-ALL ORGANISMS, LIVING OR EXTINCT
What is taxonomy based off of?
taxonomy is based off of Carl Linnaeus
What was the Linnaeus taxonomy called?
the Linnaeus taxonomy was called binomial nomenclature, after the two name system that it created
What is a taxa?
a taxa is a level of organization
What are the taxas?
Bacteria: What type of cells are bacteria?
bacteria are prokaryotic, unicellular organisms with no internal membranes
Are bacteria anaerobes or aerobes?
bacteria can be anaerobes or aerobes
What do bacteria do to dead stuff and what is this called?
bacteria eat dead organic matter
-BACTERIA ARE DECOMPOSERS
True or False: Many bacteria are pathogens?
true, many bacteria are pathogens and cause illness
What is an example of bacteria being used in genetic engineering?
an example of bacteria being used in genetic engineering is E. Coli, which is used to produce insulin
What type of sexual interaction do many bacteria carry out?
many bacteria go through conjugation
What is conjugation?
conjugation is the exchanging of genetic material in bacteria
What surrounds bacteria and what is it made of?
bacteria are surrounded by a rigid cell wall made by peptidoglycan
What is the cell wall of bacteria made of?
the cell wall of bacteria is made of peptidoglycan
Do bacteria have chloroplasts?
bacteria do not have chloroplasts BUT they can still do photosynthesis
What do bacteria have none of?
BACTERIA DO NOT HAVE INTRONS BACTERIA DO NOT HAVE INTRONS BACTERIA DO NOT HAVE INTRONS BACTERIA DO NOT HAVE INTRONS BACTERIA DO NOT HAVE INTRONS
Archaea: Describe an archaea cell.
archaea are unicellular and prokaryotic, and are extremophiles
-archaea may have introns
What three types of extremophiles are there?
1. methanogens ( get energy from methane )
2. halophiles ( live in extremely salty conditions )
3. thermophiles ( live in extremely hot conditions )
Eukarya: What do all members of domain Eukarya have?
all members of domain eukarya have a nucleus and internal organelles
What are the kingdoms of eukarya?
the domains of eukarya are fungi, protista, animalia, plantae
Protista: What is true of kingdom protista in comparison to other kingdoms?
kingdom Protista is the most varied and diverse of all eukaryotic
What types of cells are protista? What type of consumers can they be?
most protista are unicellular or primitive multicellular, look "old"
-they can be heterotrophs or autotrophs
What are examples of heterotroph protista?
examples of heterotrophic protista are amoeba and paramecium
What are examples of autotroph protista?
examples of autotrophic protista are euglena, which perform photosynthesis
How do protista move?
protista move by way of psuedopods, flagellum, cilia `
If an organisms/species was left out of plantae, where would it likely fall?
organisms that do not fit into plantae tend to find themselves classified as protista
What sexual occurrence do some bacteria and archaea both perform?
some bacteria AND archaea both perform conjugation
What notorious illness is caused by protista?
malaria can be caused protista
Fungi: Describe the main characteristics of fungi?
fungi are unicellular OR multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs
How do fungi eat?
fungi eat through EXTRACELLULAR DIGESTION, secreted hydolyctic enezymes to break down food so it can diffuse in
What characteristic do fungi and bacteria share?
fungi and bacteria are about saprobes/decomposers
What are the cell walls of fungi made of?
the cell walls of fungi are made of chitlin, while the walls of bacteria are made of peptidoglycan
How do fungi reproduce?
fungi reproduce sexually and asexually
What type of fungi are pioneer organisms?
What are examples of fungi?
yeast, mold, mushrooms
Plantae: Describe the standard characteristics of plants.
multicellular, heterotrophic, eukaryotic
What is the cell wall of plants made out of?
the cell wall of plants are made out of cellulose
What are used to carry out photosynthesis?
chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids
What do plants store carbs as and where?
plants store carbs as starch in the roots
How do plants reproduce?
plants reproduce sexually by alternating between sporophyte and gametophyte alternation
What are the two largest plant distinctions?
vascular = tracheophytes
nonvascular = bryophytes
Animalia: Describe the animalia kingdom.
multicellular, heterotrophic, motile, eukaryotic
How do animalia reproduce?
animalia reproduce sexually
How are animalia classified?
animalia are classified by embryonic development and anatomical features
How many phyla are there, and what are the major ones?
there are 35 phyla
What two phyla have no specialized tissue?
cnidarians and porifera have no specialized tissue
What are the three germ layers?
the three germ layers are
What does the ectoderm layer become?
the ectoderm becomes the skin and nervous system
What does the endoderm become?
the endoderm becomes the digestive system
What does the mesoderm become?
the mesoderm becomes the blood, muscles, and bones
What does the mesoglea do?
the mesoglea binds the layers together
What are organisms with 2 layers called? What are examples?
organisms with 2 cell layers are called diploblastic
What are organisms with 3 layers called? What are examples?
organisms with three germ layers are called triploblastic
What type of body symmetry do primitive organisms have?
primitive organisms have radial symmetry
What type of body symmetry do sophisticated organisms have?
sophisticated organisms have bilateral symmetry
What is the development of the head called?
the development of the head = cephalization
What is the head end of an organism called?
the head end of an organism =anterior
What is the tail end of an organism called?
the tail end of an organism is called the posterior
What is the coelom? What does the coelom provide for?
the coelom is a fluid filled body cavity surrounded by mesoderm tissue
-the coelom provides space for organs
What are acoelomates? What is an example?
acoelomates are primitive animals
FLAT WORMS ARE ACOELOMATES
FLAT WORMS ARE ACOELOMATES
FLAT WORMS ARE ACOELOMATES
FLAT WORMS ARE ACOELOMATES
What are psuedocoelomates?
psuedocoelomates have fluid filled tube between endoderm and mesoderm
What are coelomates?
coelomates are the most complex
Porifera: What is an example of a porifera?
What do porifera lack?
How many layers do porifera have?
Does the porifera have any tissues?
How do porifera reproduce?
sponges are porifera
-porifera have no symmetry, muscles, nerves, movement
-porifera are diploblastics (2 layers)
-no, porifera like cnidarians have no specialized tissue
-porifera reproduce both ways, fragmentation
Cnidarians: What are examples?
What type of symmetry?
What are the two different shapes of cnidarians?
How many layers does cnidarians have?
How does digestion occur?
Do cnidarians have transport?
What do all all cnidarians have?
What are stinging cells called? What are stingers called?
hydra and jelly fish are cnidarians
-cnidarians have radial symmetry
-polyp (vase, sessile=hydra) and medusa (bowl, motile=jellyfish)
-cnidarians, like polyp, have 2 layers and mesoglea
-cnidarians have lysosomes and gastrovacular cavities
-cnidarians have no transport
-all cnidarians have stinging cells (cindocytes) and stingers (nematocysts)
-stinging cells = cindocytes
Platyhelminthes: What are examples?
What type of symmetry are they?
How many cell layers do platyhelminthes have?
How do Platyhelminthes digest?
Do platyhelminthes have a lot of sensory?
Platyhelminthes are flat worms
-flat worms are simplest BILATERAL SYMMETRY
-Platyhelminthes have 3 cell layers = triploblastic
-Platyhelminthes have one opening for digestion, no systems, stuff diffuses
-Platyhelminthes do not have a lot of sensory
Nematodes: What are examples of nematodes?
What type of symmetry do nematodes have and what is their body like in terms of segmentation?
How much sensory do nematodes have?
What are many nematodes like? (bad)
nematodes are round worms
-nematodes have simple bilateral symmetry, unsegmented body
-nematodes, like Platyhelminthes, have little sensory
-many nematodes are parasitic, used in studies
Annelids: What are examples of annelids?
-What type of symmetry do annelids have?
-How much sensory do annelids have?
-What is the digestive system of the Annelids?
-Do Annelids have a circulatory system?
-How do annelids reproduce?
annelids = segmented earth worms, leeches
-annelids, like Platyhelminthes and Nematodes, have bilateral symmetry
-annelids, like Platyhelminthes and nematodes, have little sensory
-annelids have a tube within a tube
-YES, ANNELIDS HAVE A CIRCULATORY SYSTEM WITH BLOOD AND HEMOGLOBIN
-annelids reproduce sexually and sexually
Mollusks: What are examples of mollusks?
-What is the physical make up of mollusks?
-What type of circulatory system do mollusks have?
-What type of symmetry do mollusks have?
-What are three layers of mollusks?
-What is the rodula?
mollusks=slugs, clams, octopus, squid
-soft body surrounded by calcium shell
-mollusks have an OPEN circulatory system with sinuses hemeoels
-mollusks have bilateral symmetry made up of three parts
-Head-foot: sensory organs
-visceral mass: digestion/reproduction organs
-mantle: specialized tissue, secretes calcium shell
-the rodula of mollusks acts as the tongue
Arthropods: What are the three types of arthropods and examples of each?
-How are the bodies of arthropods divided? What are jointed?
-How much sensory is there in arthropods and why?
-What type of circulatory system do arthropods have?
-What is the Chitinous Exoskeleton?
-What are the Malpighian Tubules?
1. insecta: grass hopper
2. crustacea: crab
3. arachnid: spiders
-bodies of arthropods are segmented (abdomen, head, thorax)
-arthropods have jointed appendages
-there is more sensory to allow more movement
-arthropods have open circulatory system with sinuses and hemeoels
-the Chitinous Exoskeleton of arthropods allows for protection and movement
-The Malpighian tubules have air ducts and allow for the removal of waste
Echinoderms: What are examples of echinoderms?
-Describe the movement of echinoderms
-What is interesting about the symmetry of echinoderms?
-Do echinoderms have a water vascular system?
-What type of skeleton do echinoderms have?
-How do echinoderms reproduce?
echinoderms are sea stars and sea urchins
-echinoderms are sessile or slow moving
-echinoderms start off as bilateral but revert to radial as adult
-echinoderms have a water vascular system
-echinoderms have an endoskeleton
-echinoderms reproduce both ways
Chordates: What types of chordates are there?
-What do all chordates share?
-What does the tail do?
-What does homeotherm mean? What are examples?
-What chordates are cold blooded?
chordates=fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, mammals
-all chordates share a note chord (rod that extends length of body and serves as axis) AND dorsal, hollow nerve cord
-the tail aids movement
-homeotherm=warm blooded, constant temp (birds and mammals are homeotherms)
-fish, reptiles, amphibians=cold blooded
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