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High levels of this substance appear in urine when a baby is born with a deficiency of an enzyme. the infant can become mentally retarded if not immediately put on a strict diet that prevents the substance from accumulating in the blood and urine.
high levels of acids and acetones accumulate in the urine as a result of abnormal fat breakdown
bacterial infection of the renal pelvis, tubules, interstitial tissue of one or both kidneys
stasis may lead to infection, distended bladder may result, caused by stress, calculus obstruction, stones, tumor, infection, meds, trauma, may feel discomfort and anxiety
glomerulus within nephron unit becomes inflammed; may be bacterial or viral
slowly progressive destructive process affecting the glomeruli causing loss of kidney function
changes in urinary system with age
nephrons decrease, GFR decreases, Na+ conserving ability is diminished, bladder capacity decreases, bladder and perineal muscles weaken, incidence of stress incontinence increases in females, prostate may enlarge.
proper urine collection via foley catheter
Specimens may be collected directly from a foley into an evacuated tube or transferred from a syringe into a tube or cup
acute renal failure
rapid deterioration of renal function with rising blood levels of urea and other nitrogenous wastes (azotemia)
post renal failure
disruption of urine flow (can be obstruction in ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra)
A higher than normal blood level of urea or other nitrogen containing compounds in the blood. The hallmark test is the serum BUN (blood urea nitrogen) level. Usually caused by the inability of the kidney to excrete these compounds
renal failure: respiratory
dyspnea, pulmonary edema, hyperventilation from metabolic acidosis. Eventually kussmaul respirations
renal failure: GI
urea in the blood is converted to ammonia by the mouth, causing uremic halitosis. hiccups, anorexia, and nausea from edema within the GI tract
renal failure: nervous
lethargy, headaches, confusion, impaired concentration with disorientation, depression, decreased LOC, sleep disturbances and uremic encephalopathy resulting in seizures and coma
renal failure: sensory
peripheral neuropathy with numbness and tingling of extremities with complaints of a prickly crawling feeling in feet and legs, especially at night
renal failure: reproductive
decreased libido, decreased sperm count, amenorrhea, impotence, delayed puberty
renal failure: immune
greater chance of infections from immunosupression, decreased antibody production
chronic renal failure
slow, progressive condition in which the kidneys ability to function ultimately deteriorates and is not reversible
reduced renal reserve
glomerular filteration rate declines. 40% nephrons fail without sx being evident
uses peritoneal lining of abdominal cavity as membrane through which diffusion and osmosis occur
an automated cycler used to perform 3-5 exchanges during the night, dwell time lasts entire day
client must be tissue and blood typed to determine compatible donor, greatest complication is infection
s/s of rejection (kidney transplant)
oliguria/ anuria, hematuria, tenderness over kidney, sudden weight gain, edema, fever, malaise, fatigue, increased blood pressure
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