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Abnormal particles- cells, bacteria, casts, and crystals


High levels of this substance appear in urine when a baby is born with a deficiency of an enzyme. the infant can become mentally retarded if not immediately put on a strict diet that prevents the substance from accumulating in the blood and urine.


Smoky-red color of urine caused by the presence of blood


turbid (cloudy) urine caused by the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and pus


sugar in the urine; a sx of DM and a result of hyperglycemia


this urine test reflects the acidity or alkalinity of the urine


high levels of acids and acetones accumulate in the urine as a result of abnormal fat breakdown


dark pigment that accumulates in urine as a result of liver or gallbladder disease

specific gravity

this urine test reflects the concentration of the urine


leaky glomeruli can produce accumulation of protein in the urine


bacterial infection of the renal pelvis, tubules, interstitial tissue of one or both kidneys

urinary retention

stasis may lead to infection, distended bladder may result, caused by stress, calculus obstruction, stones, tumor, infection, meds, trauma, may feel discomfort and anxiety

3-way catheter


straight/simple/red robin catheter

specimen collection

condom catheter

drainage/urine collection

suprapubic/malcott catheter

urinary diversion

Foley/indwelling catheter

drainage/ urine collection

stress incontinence

leakage of urine on straining

urge incontinence

sudden need to urinate

overflow incontinence

full bladder leads to leakage

total incontinence

no control of voiding

nocturnal enuresis

night time incontinence (bed-wetting)

lower UTI


upper UTI

pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis,

acute glomerulonephritis

glomerulus within nephron unit becomes inflammed; may be bacterial or viral

chronic glomerulonephritis

slowly progressive destructive process affecting the glomeruli causing loss of kidney function


increased levels of ketones

ultrasound machine

how to check for residual urine


order administered 1st for cystitis


calculus or stone found in urinary tract

changes in urinary system with age

nephrons decrease, GFR decreases, Na+ conserving ability is diminished, bladder capacity decreases, bladder and perineal muscles weaken, incidence of stress incontinence increases in females, prostate may enlarge.


used for mid-lower ureter stones

proper urine collection via foley catheter

Specimens may be collected directly from a foley into an evacuated tube or transferred from a syringe into a tube or cup

Renal failure

any acute or chronic loss of klidney function is called renal failure

end stage renal disease

total or nearly total or nearly total, permanent kidney failure

acute renal failure

rapid deterioration of renal function with rising blood levels of urea and other nitrogenous wastes (azotemia)

post renal failure

disruption of urine flow (can be obstruction in ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra)

prerenal failure

disrupted blood flow to kidney (decreased blood pressure)

intrarenal failure

renal tissue damage


causes damage to kidneys, especially nephrons


caused by decline in kidney perfusion


caused by obstruction


caused by tissue damage of the glomeruli and/or tubules causes loss of kidney function


takes out potassium and replaces sodium

renal failure:urinary

oliguria from renal insufficiency azotemia


A higher than normal blood level of urea or other nitrogen containing compounds in the blood. The hallmark test is the serum BUN (blood urea nitrogen) level. Usually caused by the inability of the kidney to excrete these compounds

renal failure: blood

anemia from decreased RBC production

renal failure: CV

hypervolemia and tachycardia. HTN and dysrhythmias from hyperkalemia

renal failure: respiratory

dyspnea, pulmonary edema, hyperventilation from metabolic acidosis. Eventually kussmaul respirations

renal failure: GI

urea in the blood is converted to ammonia by the mouth, causing uremic halitosis. hiccups, anorexia, and nausea from edema within the GI tract

renal failure: skin

dry skin with pruritis from uremic frost, pallor with anemia

renal failure: nervous

lethargy, headaches, confusion, impaired concentration with disorientation, depression, decreased LOC, sleep disturbances and uremic encephalopathy resulting in seizures and coma

renal failure: sensory

peripheral neuropathy with numbness and tingling of extremities with complaints of a prickly crawling feeling in feet and legs, especially at night

renal failure: reproductive

decreased libido, decreased sperm count, amenorrhea, impotence, delayed puberty

renal failure: musculoskeletal

joint pain, muscle cramping, bone demineralization from hypocalcemia

renal failure: immune

greater chance of infections from immunosupression, decreased antibody production

chronic renal failure

slow, progressive condition in which the kidneys ability to function ultimately deteriorates and is not reversible

3 stages of chronic renal failure

reduced renal reserve, renal insufficiency, ESRD

3 forms of acute renal failure

postrenal, prerenal, intrarenal

reduced renal reserve

glomerular filteration rate declines. 40% nephrons fail without sx being evident

renal insufficiency

75% nephrons fail, increased BUN, creatinine, nocturia, polyuria


90% nephrons fail, increased BUN, creatinine, oliguria, severe F&E imbalance

cause in order of prevalence

DM, HTN, glomerulonephritis, cystic kidney


mechanical means of remo waste from the blood


a machine with artificial membrane is used to filter the blood

peritoneal dialysis

uses peritoneal lining of abdominal cavity as membrane through which diffusion and osmosis occur

arteriovenous fistula

artery and vein sutured together

arteriovenous shunt

artery cannula installed in to artery

arteriovenous graft

ends of a natural synthetic graft is sutured in to the artery and vein


3 times a week, 3-4hrs

peritoneal dialysis-ambulatory

daily, 4 exchanges completed. less expensive

peritoneal dialysis-nightly

an automated cycler used to perform 3-5 exchanges during the night, dwell time lasts entire day

kidney transplantation

client must be tissue and blood typed to determine compatible donor, greatest complication is infection

cloudy urine

1st sign of infection post-op (kidney transplant)

location of new kidney

cradled in ileac

s/s of rejection (kidney transplant)

oliguria/ anuria, hematuria, tenderness over kidney, sudden weight gain, edema, fever, malaise, fatigue, increased blood pressure


calculus or stone formed in urinary tract

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