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77 terms

renal system

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sediment
Abnormal particles- cells, bacteria, casts, and crystals
phenylketonuria
High levels of this substance appear in urine when a baby is born with a deficiency of an enzyme. the infant can become mentally retarded if not immediately put on a strict diet that prevents the substance from accumulating in the blood and urine.
hematuria
Smoky-red color of urine caused by the presence of blood
pyuria
turbid (cloudy) urine caused by the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and pus
glycosuria
sugar in the urine; a sx of DM and a result of hyperglycemia
pH
this urine test reflects the acidity or alkalinity of the urine
ketonuria
high levels of acids and acetones accumulate in the urine as a result of abnormal fat breakdown
bilirubinuria
dark pigment that accumulates in urine as a result of liver or gallbladder disease
specific gravity
this urine test reflects the concentration of the urine
albuminuria
leaky glomeruli can produce accumulation of protein in the urine
Pyelonephritis
bacterial infection of the renal pelvis, tubules, interstitial tissue of one or both kidneys
urinary retention
stasis may lead to infection, distended bladder may result, caused by stress, calculus obstruction, stones, tumor, infection, meds, trauma, may feel discomfort and anxiety
3-way catheter
irrigation
straight/simple/red robin catheter
specimen collection
condom catheter
drainage/urine collection
suprapubic/malcott catheter
urinary diversion
Foley/indwelling catheter
drainage/ urine collection
stress incontinence
leakage of urine on straining
urge incontinence
sudden need to urinate
overflow incontinence
full bladder leads to leakage
total incontinence
no control of voiding
nocturnal enuresis
night time incontinence (bed-wetting)
lower UTI
cystitis
upper UTI
pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis,
acute glomerulonephritis
glomerulus within nephron unit becomes inflammed; may be bacterial or viral
chronic glomerulonephritis
slowly progressive destructive process affecting the glomeruli causing loss of kidney function
acidosis
increased levels of ketones
ultrasound machine
how to check for residual urine
antimicrobials
order administered 1st for cystitis
urolithiasis
calculus or stone found in urinary tract
changes in urinary system with age
nephrons decrease, GFR decreases, Na+ conserving ability is diminished, bladder capacity decreases, bladder and perineal muscles weaken, incidence of stress incontinence increases in females, prostate may enlarge.
utereoscopy
used for mid-lower ureter stones
proper urine collection via foley catheter
Specimens may be collected directly from a foley into an evacuated tube or transferred from a syringe into a tube or cup
Renal failure
any acute or chronic loss of klidney function is called renal failure
end stage renal disease
total or nearly total or nearly total, permanent kidney failure
acute renal failure
rapid deterioration of renal function with rising blood levels of urea and other nitrogenous wastes (azotemia)
post renal failure
disruption of urine flow (can be obstruction in ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra)
prerenal failure
disrupted blood flow to kidney (decreased blood pressure)
intrarenal failure
renal tissue damage
antibiotics
causes damage to kidneys, especially nephrons
prerenal
caused by decline in kidney perfusion
postrenal
caused by obstruction
intrarenal
caused by tissue damage of the glomeruli and/or tubules causes loss of kidney function
kayexalate
takes out potassium and replaces sodium
renal failure:urinary
oliguria from renal insufficiency azotemia
azotemia
A higher than normal blood level of urea or other nitrogen containing compounds in the blood. The hallmark test is the serum BUN (blood urea nitrogen) level. Usually caused by the inability of the kidney to excrete these compounds
renal failure: blood
anemia from decreased RBC production
renal failure: CV
hypervolemia and tachycardia. HTN and dysrhythmias from hyperkalemia
renal failure: respiratory
dyspnea, pulmonary edema, hyperventilation from metabolic acidosis. Eventually kussmaul respirations
renal failure: GI
urea in the blood is converted to ammonia by the mouth, causing uremic halitosis. hiccups, anorexia, and nausea from edema within the GI tract
renal failure: skin
dry skin with pruritis from uremic frost, pallor with anemia
renal failure: nervous
lethargy, headaches, confusion, impaired concentration with disorientation, depression, decreased LOC, sleep disturbances and uremic encephalopathy resulting in seizures and coma
renal failure: sensory
peripheral neuropathy with numbness and tingling of extremities with complaints of a prickly crawling feeling in feet and legs, especially at night
renal failure: reproductive
decreased libido, decreased sperm count, amenorrhea, impotence, delayed puberty
renal failure: musculoskeletal
joint pain, muscle cramping, bone demineralization from hypocalcemia
renal failure: immune
greater chance of infections from immunosupression, decreased antibody production
chronic renal failure
slow, progressive condition in which the kidneys ability to function ultimately deteriorates and is not reversible
3 stages of chronic renal failure
reduced renal reserve, renal insufficiency, ESRD
3 forms of acute renal failure
postrenal, prerenal, intrarenal
reduced renal reserve
glomerular filteration rate declines. 40% nephrons fail without sx being evident
renal insufficiency
75% nephrons fail, increased BUN, creatinine, nocturia, polyuria
ESRD
90% nephrons fail, increased BUN, creatinine, oliguria, severe F&E imbalance
cause in order of prevalence
DM, HTN, glomerulonephritis, cystic kidney
dialysis
mechanical means of remohttp://quizlet.com/5782898/edit/ving waste from the blood
hemodialysis
a machine with artificial membrane is used to filter the blood
peritoneal dialysis
uses peritoneal lining of abdominal cavity as membrane through which diffusion and osmosis occur
arteriovenous fistula
artery and vein sutured together
arteriovenous shunt
artery cannula installed in to artery
arteriovenous graft
ends of a natural synthetic graft is sutured in to the artery and vein
hemodialysis
3 times a week, 3-4hrs
peritoneal dialysis-ambulatory
daily, 4 exchanges completed. less expensive
peritoneal dialysis-nightly
an automated cycler used to perform 3-5 exchanges during the night, dwell time lasts entire day
kidney transplantation
client must be tissue and blood typed to determine compatible donor, greatest complication is infection
cloudy urine
1st sign of infection post-op (kidney transplant)
location of new kidney
cradled in ileac
s/s of rejection (kidney transplant)
oliguria/ anuria, hematuria, tenderness over kidney, sudden weight gain, edema, fever, malaise, fatigue, increased blood pressure
urolithasis
calculus or stone formed in urinary tract