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Science Test 4

STUDY
PLAY
Acids
Substances that release Hydrogen in water
Acids
Properties of _____: Taste sour, Dissolve Metals, and Conduct electricity
Taste Sour, Dissolve Metals, and Conduct Electricity
3 Properties of Acids
Taste
NEVER _____ CHEMICALS
No
Do acids react with all metals?
Hydrogen Gas
Acids react with certain metals and produce ________ ___.
Disappear
When acids react with metals and disappear, and produce hydrogen gas, the metals appear to _________.
Acids
We use _____ for Food, Vitamins, Digestion, Batteries, and Fertilizer
Bases
Compounds that release hydroxide ions
Bases
Properties of _____: Taste Bitter, Are Slippery, and Conduct Electricity
Bitter
Examples of a ______ taste: Chocolates, Figs, Potatoes
Taste Bitter, Are Slippery, and Conduct Electricity
3 Properties of Bases
Indicator
We use this to identify an acid or base
Indicator
Compound that changes color for acids and bases
Phenolphthalein
Scientists most often use this indicator
Hydrogen Ions
Acid strength is determined by the amount of ________ ____ that break apart in water
Hydroxide Ions
Base strength is determined by the amount of _________ ____ that break off in water
pH Scale
Acids and Bases are opposite each other on the __ _____.
0
pH of hydrochloric acid
3
pH of cola
10
pH of detergent
14
pH of oven cleaner
Hydronium Ions
pH measures how many ________ ____ are in a solution
0 to 14
The pH scale ranges in value from _ to __.
High
Low pH indicates that the concentration of hydronium ions is ____.
Low
High pH indicates that the concentration of hydronium ions is ___.
Litmus
Another word for a pH indicator
Acidic or Basic
Litmus strips indicate whether something is ______ or _____.
Neutralization
When you mix an acid and a base, a ______________ reaction occurs.
Cancel
When you mix an acid and a base, they ______ each other out.
Salt and Water
A Neutralization reaction forms ____ and _____.
Ionic
Salts are _____ compounds
Metal, Nonmetal
Salts form the _____ of a base and the ________ of an acid
Food
This is mostly made up of Water, Carbohydrates, Protein, and Fats
Useable
Food isn't _______ in your body, until they are broken down
Broken Down
Foods must be ______ ____ into simpler substances that are useable for materials and energy
Mechanical Digestion
Type of digestion: The process through which your food is physical broken down into smaller, more manageable pieces. The result is a physical change.
Chemical Digestion
Type of digestion: The molecules in food are chemically broken down into new forms that are useable for energy and for the maintenance/growth of muscle, bones, skin, and organs
Enzymes
Chemical Digestion is made possible with the help of _______, catalysts in the body that help speed up the "Reactions of Life"
Stations
The process of digestion works its way through several ________ in your body.
Mouth
In this phase of digestion, saliva helps to mix and mash the food
Stomach
In this phase of digestion, the chemical digestion of proteins begins
Pepsin
Breaks down proteins into amino acids
Small Intestine
In this phase of digestion, enzymes complete the work of chemical digestion
Heartburn
Occurs when stomach acids backup into the esophagus causing painful discomfort in the chest
Antacids
Help with heartburn: They neurtalize the acids that have left the stomach, and lower excessively high acid levels that result from certain foods
Smoother, Cools Down, and No Friction
After rubbing 2 pieces of paper together, when you put lead on the paper, what are 3 new properties?
Valence Electrons
These make Carbon Elements useful
Covalent
Because Carbon atoms have 4 valence electrons, these form 4 ________ bonds.
Bonding Sites
The high number of _______ _____, and the fact that Carbon can bond with both itself and other atoms, makes it possible for Carbon to form a variety of molecular structures
Backbones
Carbon's molecular structures are the _________ for molecules
Properties
The Carbon molecular structures have different __________ depending on their shapes and attractions
Straight Chains, Chains with Branches, and Rings
The 3 molecular structures of Carbon
Diamond, Graphite, and Fullerene
3 Common Examples of Carbon in its pure form
Diamond
Hardest mineral, formed deep within the earth
Pressure and Temperature
Diamonds need extremely high ________ and ___________ to form
Shiny and Hard
Once formed, Diamonds are _____ and very ____
3500
How many Degrees Celsius is a Diamond's melting point?
Diamonds
These work extremely well in industrial cutting tools
Graphite
Solid made up of carbon layers or sheets
Pencil Lead
Most common example of Graphite
Slippery
Graphite is very ________, and consequently, is an excellent industrial lubricant
Fullerene
Form of Carbon engineered by chemists at Rice Univsity
1985
Year Fullerene was made
Rice
College Fullerene was made at
Geodesic Sphere
Model of Fullerene
Fullerene
This is used as medicine
90
Over __% of all known compounds have carbon in them
Propane
Common Carbon Compound: This is a gas
Olive Oil
Common Carbon Compound: This is a liquid
Wax and Cotton
Common Carbon Compounds: These are solids
Organic Compounds
Since there are so many carbon compounds, we gave them their own name: _______ _________
Organic
Means "Of Living Things"
Low Melting and Boiling Points
Many Organic Compounds have similar properties like ___ _______ and _______ ______
Hydrocarbons
Elements that only contain Carbon and Hydrogen
Hydrocarbons
The carbon chains in ____________ can be straight, branched, or ring shaped
Flammable
All Hydrocarbons are _________.
Fuels
Hydrocarbons are excellent _____.
Carbon and Hydrogen
What makes Hydrocarbons distinct is the number of ______ and ________ atoms in their structures.
Propane, Ethane, and Methane
3 Common examples of Hydrocarbons
Molecular Structures
Some hydrocarbons develop slight differences because of differences in their _________ _________.
Isomers
New Hydrocarbons that have the same molecular formula, but different structural formulas
Saturated
Hydrocarbons with only single bonds
Methane
Common example of a saturated hydrocarbon
Unsaturated
Hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds
Ethane
Common example of an unsaturated hydrocarbon
Substituted Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons with at least one replaced hydrogen
Halogen containing compounds, alcohols, and organic acids
3 Common examples of substituted hydrocarbons
Freon
Common example of a Halogen Containing Compound
Ethanol
Common example of an Alcohol
Malic Acid
Common example of an Organic Acid
Esters
Compound that results when you combine an organic acid and an alcohol
Medicine
Esters are used in ________
Leather
Original Material for Football Helmets
Glass
Original Material for Water Bottles
Cat Guts
Original Material for Tennis Rackets
Leather
Original Material for Tents
Monomer
Each molecule in a Polymer
Repeating Pattern
Polymers can be made up of monomers in a _________ _______
Multiply
When multiple compounds are combined they often ________ the uses of a single compound
Silk, Cotton, and Wool
3 Naturally occurring examples of polymers
Polyester and Nylon
2 Synthetic examples of polymers
Plants
Most common example of polymers
Cellulose
Polymer that forms when sugar molecules are formed into longer strands
Spiderwebs
Polymers made by animals
Proteins
The ________ in our bodies are polymers