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an accumulation of rocky material transported and deposited by glacial ice

setps in LIS formation

1 North America and africa drift apart
2 glacier covered land from Canada to NY and CT
3 glaciers reached southernmost point leaving a moraine
4 glaciers melted-lis was a glacial lake
5 seawater flowed into the LIS at race
6.plant and animal habitats form along shores of LIS-now an estuary

Marsh to Marina

1.Densest population of Native americans in North america
2.settlements are being established by europeans
3.dissapering of Native americans
4.industry is increasing/ land is being devolped
5.wetlands are disapering
6.scientist recommend a national fund for ecosystem restoration


an entire land and water area that drains into a body of water (steam lake estuary ocean etc.)

states in LIS watershed

2.New York
4.Rhode Island
5.New hampshire

danger signs of watershed

2. trash
3. fallen trees/flooding
4.algal blooms/nutrient problems
5.low oxygen levels/dead fish/hypoxia/pollution
7.odors/failed septic system
8.intrusions on watershed
9. closed beaches/shellfish beds/pathogens


an area that has the perfect conditions for a specific animal to live (home)

8 wetland benefits

1 breaks down toxic substances
2 filter out debris
3 provides food
4 cleans water
5 absorbs water/flood control
6 nursery/breeding grounds
7 mixes nutrients in water
8 shelter and home
9 resting place for migratory birds






wastewater from homes building etc.

sewer systems

complex pipes and pumps that carry sewage to treatment plant

sanitary sewers

sewers carrying human waste

storm sewers

sewers carrying road and parking lot runoff


release of natural waters or a partially treated mixture of sewage and street runoff usually after heavy rains


anything in the air water or that is harmful or can interfear with disered activity

point source

a pollutant that enters the environment from a specific site

nonpoint source

a pollutant that does not come from a specific site general location


substances essential to living things


any waterborne debris that washes up on shore


viruses bacteria or other mircoorganisms that can cause disease


bacteria-type of pathogen

heavy metals

water soluble forms of certin metals

organic chemcials

chemicals produced by a plant or animals


type of organi chemical natural or synthetic chemical used to kill plantsor animals

toxic chemcials

chemcial that can kill or damage living organisms

airborne pollutants

start in the air and become water pollutants by perticipation or gravity


wearing away of soil by water wind and other forces


boundary between colder saltier denser water at the bottom and warmer less salty less dense water on the surface

primary treatement

process that removes solids from sewage

secondary treatment

process that uses biological action to remove organic matter from sewage

advanced treatment

process after secondary treatment, to remove substances that have not already been removed

9 steps causing hypoxia in LIS

1. excess nitrogen is sprayed on hundreds of residential lawns
2. rain brings nitrogen to rivers then to the sound
3.excess nitrogen in the water causes an algae bloom
4.the alage die in a short while and settle to the bottom of the water
5. bacteria decompose the dead alage using more and more dissolved oxygen as the bacteria multiplies
6.dissolved oxygen levels become very low leave and other less mobile animals weaken and die
8. the animals that did from low oxygen levels dcompse
9 decomposers use more oxygen and the problem of low oxygen becomes worse


partly inclosed body of water wher salt water and fresh water meet and mix

low energy shoreline

shoreline that is protected form the full effect of ocean wind and waves

the race

1.eastern end of LIS
2.ocean water enters
3.strongst currents
5.highest saltinity in LIS


salt content- how much salt is in something

intertidal zone

area between normal high and low tides

tidal flats

flat marshy sandy or muddy areas exposed at low tide and under water at high tide

salt marsh

grassy habitat covered part time by esturarian or costal waters

parts of a food web

1.sun provides solar energy
2.producers convert solar energy into food (plants)
3.consumers eat producers and other consumers
4.decomposers breakdown waste and dead organisms


a consumer that only eats plants


a consumer that eats both plants and animals


a consumer that only eats meat


low concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water


organisms that live on or in the floor of a body of water

filter feeders

organism that takes in water to filter out the food then releases extra water


an animal that typically dosen't move-grows attached to something

water column

all the water between the bottom and the surface


plants or animals that can drift or swim weakly in the water


plant plankton-base of food web-carries out photosynthesis-lives where sunlight is present in water


animal plankton-eat phytoplankton and other zoo plankton

andomous fish

fish born in freshwater-spend lives in saltwater-return to freshwater to reproduce and die (bass and salmon)

saltwater fish

fish born and spend entire life in salt water (flounder)

3 types of water

saltwater-water with more 35ppt
freshwater-water with less than .5ppt
brakishwater-water with less than 35ppt


synthesis of carbohydrates by plants using carbon dixode and water inthe presence of sunligh with stimuleous production of oxygen

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