Chapter 5 Science, Earth's Weather
Terms in this set (38)
the air that surrounds Earth; forms five layers of gas around Earth
the layer of gases closest to Earth's surface; this layer contains 99% of the air in the atmosphere; the air is densest in this layer
the force put on a given area by the weight of the air above it; also known as atmospheric pressure.
What causes air pressure inside the blimp?
Particles of gas press on Earth's surface and on everything they surround. Therefore, air pressure pushes equally on all parts inside of this object.
Are there particles of gas in space?
What are the properties of air?
that it has weight, takes up spae, and exerts pressure.
What can change air pressure?
Changes in volume, temperature, humidity, or altitude.
the height above Earth's surface. It is measured from sea level which is set to be zero.
What happens to air pressure when air is cooled?
The gases slow down and stay close together in a small area; air pressure increases and the air weighs more
What happens to air pressure when air pressure is heated?
The gases speed up and spread out into a larger space so there are now fewer particles of gas in the original volume of air; air pressure decreases and the air weighs less
the amount of water vapor in the air
an instrument that is used to measure atmospheric pressure; there are two different kinds
What happens when air is heated unevenly?
It moves around, causing winds and air currents
On what part of the Earth is the sunlight the least concentrated?
the farthest North or South from the equator
transfer of heat through the movement of gas or a liquid; when this happens in the air, it forms winds.
Describe the movement of air pressure during a sea breeze.
During the day, land heats up faster than water. Air over the land becomes warmer and the atmospheric pressure decreases and becomes less dense. The column of air over the ocean now has a higher pressure than over the land and the air moves toward the land.
Describe the movement of air pressure during a land breeze.
Overnight, the land cools off faster than the water. This means the air over the land is cooler and has a higher pressure than over the water. Air moves to where the pressure is lower. Therefore the cool air moves toward the ocean.
trade winds that blow steadily in predictable directions and over long distances.
Why is the air pressure at the poles higher than the air pressure at the equator?
As you get farther away from the equator, the less sunlight and the air near the poles is cooler, denser, and has a higher pressure.
the average weather conditions of a place or region, which includes average temperature, average rainfall, humidity, and wind conditions.
an ongoing movement of ocean water that moves heat and water around the Earth
How do oceans affect the weather and climate of nearby land?
Water and land heat the air above them. The temperature of the ocean does not change much from day to night or from season to season. This keeps the land near the oceans at moderate temperatures.
can cause weather changes over a large area that changes the normal winds that blow east to west to change to blow west to east.
a large region of air that has a similar temperature and humidity
the meeting place between air masses where changes in weather occur
a rainstorm that includes lightening and thunder
a rotating funnel-shaped cloud that contains winds that blow up to 299 miles per hour (also called twisters).
low pressure closure
when an area of low pressure air is surrounded by higher pressure
a very large swirling storm with very low pressure at its center and wind speeds higher than 73 miles per hour. They have an eye that forms at the center.
a bulge of water in the ocean created by an area of very low pressure. It can be the most destructive part of a hurricane along the coast.
a storm with a low pressure closure and a circular pattern of winds that form. Tornadoes and hurricanes are both types of these.
What causes storms?
When air masses with different temperatures and humidities meet, they cause changes in air pressure that can lead to these.
to make your best guess before something happens
a scientist who specializes in the study of Earth's atmosphere and weather; they may predict what the weather will be.
shows the weather in a specific area at a specific point in time and help you predict the weather
What type of weather do low pressure systems bring?
These systems bring warm and stormy weather
What type of weather do high pressure systems bring?
These systems usually bring dry, clear weather.
What kind of weather data can a weather satellite gather?