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Obligate aerobes and facultative anaerobes usually have which two enzymes for detoxifying ROSs
SOD and Catalase
Lowest temp required to kill all cells in a standard suspension of bacteria in a liquid culture within a period of 10 mins
thermal death point
Length of time required to kill all cells in a standard suspension of bacteria in a liquid culture at a given temp
thermal death time
Length of time required to obtain a ten-fold reduction (1 log diff) in the numebr of bacteria in a standard suspension of bacteria in a liquid culture
decimal reduction time (d value)
can benefit from associations with humans but do not provide benefits for, nor harm, the host
nutrition, niche exclusion, & GI tract & Immune system functions boosted
benefits from mutualistic bacteria
fungi & green algae/cyanobacteria. GA/C provide carbon for fungi, fungi provides water, minerals and substrate for GA/C to grow.
E. coli using O2 in intestine andallowing only strict anaerobes to grow is an eg of what? (E. coli derives no obvious benefit from coexistance with anaerobes)
Which 3 types of bacteria are usually in our upper resp. tract?
Strep, Staph, Neisseria meningitidis
Which 6 types of bacteria are usually in our GI Tract?
Lactobacillus, Bacteriodes, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Escherichia, Enterococcus
s. mutans has 3 mechanisms of acid tolerance. What are the two things it exports?
Protons and lactic acid
the third thing strep. mutans has to increase its acid tolerance is:
Low membrane permeability to protons
site of continued digestion of monosacchs, AAs, fatty acids, water, with a pH of roughly 4-5
Helicobacter pylori attempts to maintain an intracellular pH of around 7 by making the enzyme ______ which converts urea to CO2 and _____ which reacts with protons to form ammonium ions.
Gram negative bacterial phylum eg Bacillus fragilis that digest plant polysaccharides in the bowel
Bac phylum in bowel eg bifidobacteria, that digest milk oligosaccharides and synthesise vitamins
The only archabacteria present in the bowel that consumes hydrogen gas in the gut, and produces methane
What percentage of bacteria found by a full metagenomic study were a) novel and b) not able to be cultured?
in human neonates the intestine is colonised primarily with which type of bacteria?
the presence of this bacterial species increases intestinal surface area, development of blood vessels and therefore better digestion and absorption.
these symptoms were found in what?: higher susceptibility to infections, diminished cytokine levels, reduced serum immunoglobulin and CD4 T cell levels
a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen, causes expansion of splenic CD4 T cells, - what's it shortened to?
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