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Psy 202 Final
Terms in this set (115)
the sensory abilities in newborn infants
include the ability to discriminate smells, tastes, and sounds almost immediately.
how do infant rhesus monkeys that were raised with both an artifical "wire mother" and an artificial "cloth mother" respond to these objects?
They would cling to the "cloth mother," especially when they are frightened or startled
Mary Ainsworth observed that securely attatched infants
cry or protest if the mother leaves the room and welcome her back when she returns
A toddler smacks her lips to let her parents know that she wants food. This is an example of
a language acquisition device
In which stage of cognitive development does the conversation concept first appear
Piaget mistakenly believed that
Preoperational children cannot take another person's point of view
six-year-old Nettie doesn't want to share her toys with a friend who has come over to play. Her mother puts her arm around her and says, "We all sometimes don't feel like sharing. But think about how you would feel if you weren't allowed to play with anything. I know you like to be fair to other. " Nettie's mom is using the child-rearing method known as
the term ________ has replaced the term hermaphroditism
Earl-maturing boys generally have ______ than do late-maturing boys
more size and strength advantages to boost sport skills
according to Erikson, a conflict to identify versus role confusion occurs during
which component of personality represents morality and parental authority
Luke is obsessive about cleanliness. He can't stand it when someone creates a mess in his house or puts something back in the wrong place. A Freudian psychoanalyst would likely say that Luke is fixated in the ___ stage
Penny is a folklorist who studies myths and stories from different cultures around the world. She notices that there are some character types that appear frequently, despite the fact that the cultures she studies have had little to no contact with each other. Whose work would Penny likely cite to explain this observation?
What does the empirical evidence show about the Myers-Briggs test's ability to predict a person's behavior on the job or in a relationship
the evidence does not support it
Regarding the Big Five, most psychologists would probably agree with the statement that:
the lie at the core of key personality variations among individuals throughout the world
Which of the following describes the general relationship between genes and personality?
A genetic predisposition does not necessarily imply genetic inevitability.
a person's personality can affect the way they perceive an experience. Conversely, different experiences can change the way a person's perceptions take place. this is an example of which concept?
A culture in which people tend to see themselves as autonomous, and value individual goals and wishes above duty and relations with others would be described as
_________ cultures value group harmony, duty, obligation, and security
which of the following theories of personality would be most likely to emphasize the freedom of individuals to choose to act in particular ways
psychological tests used to infer motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on the basis of a person's interpretations of ambiguous stimuli are called
Candice experiences a continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration, and signs of motor tension. According to the DSM this disorder is called:
generalized anxiety disorder
The prevalence of mood disorders for each gender indicates that major depression occurs
at least twice as often among women as among men
Which of the following is a mood disorder?
cognitive theorists would be most likely to agree that the real problem for depressed people is that
they feel hopeless
A psychiatric patient repeatedly breaks the law, behaves impulsively, and generally demonstrates a disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others. It is most likely that this patient will be diagnosed with
antisocial personality disorder
The two dominant approaches to understanding addiction and drug abuse are:
the biological model and the learning model
Alcoholism is ______ in societies that forbid children to drink but condone drunkenness in adults
more likely to occur
Psychosis is characterized by
distorted perceptions and irrational behavior
A patient in a mental hospital exhibits disordered thinking, perceptual abnormalities, unusual emotions, and suspiciousness. This person is probably suffering from
Cecile fluctuates between deep depression, during which she will withdraw from family and friends, not eat, and feel hopeless, followed by mania, during which she shops continuously and engages in risky sexual behavior. Which of the following drugs would be most beneficial to Cecile( for bipolar disorder)
In an analysis of patients mentioned in your textbook, investigators found that the placebo effect accounted for more than ___ percent of the alleviation of symptoms of depression
Electroconvulsive therapy is used to alleviate
Maureen is in therapy because she is very frightened of her father and feels tongue-tied around him. After a few months she begins to feel frightened of her therapist also. According to Freud, this is an example of
A technique that assumes it is impossible to be relaxed and anxious at the same time
Many humanist therapists would agree that _____ is useful in treating psychological disorders
unconditional positive regard
All successful therapies, regardless of approach, share what key element?
They are able to replace a client's self-defeating, pessimistic life narrative with one that is more hopeful or attainable
Which of the following is generally more important that the specific technique a therapist uses in determining the success of psychotherapy?
the bond between the therapist and the client (theraputic alliance)
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), originated by Francine Shapiro
has no empirical evidence that is does anything beyond standard exposure treatments
_____ is often more effective than medication in the treatment of panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder
1. Dr. Valencia-Laver believed which of the following was a drawback in using stage theory in child development.
by it's very nature, stage theory tends to underestimate individual and cultural differences.
2. A teratogen:
can have damaging effects on the developing embryo.
3. Rooting reflex:
a innate reflex that prompts the baby to turn its head to facilitate finding the nipple for feeding.
4. In the video clip attempting to determine whether infant (monkey) attachment was due to food or contact, the infant spent
less than one hour a day on the wire mother who provided food.
5. Quiet alert, active alert, crying, drowsy, quiet sleep, active (REM) sleep
characterize the variety of the states of mind of the newborn.
6. According to Dr. Valencia-Laver, the types of attachment revealed in the "Strange Situation"
may indicate the types of attachment shown later in life when confronted with stress or separation.
7. In considering how the baby's termpermant influences attachment, it was found that certain kinds of temperament
- made it difficult for the baby to form a secure attachment to its mother.
- made it difficult for the mother to form a secure attachment to its baby.
- amplified the stress and conflict in a troubled marriage.
8. According to Piaget, object permanence
is unique to the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
9. One of the conclusions about child development that Dr. Valencia-Laver wanted to leave with you,
in their first two years, infants show remarkable development in fine motor skills, their ability to form attachments, and cognitive development.
1. According to Dr. Valencia-Laver, the cross-sequential research method
combines both the cross sectional and longitudinal research methods.
2. If we wanted to study differences between people of different ages, the ____________ research method is fine. If we wanted to study changes in cognitive abilities, the _______________ is best.
3. Which of the following is true about life expectancy?
Asian Americans have the longest life expectancy in the United States.
4. According to Dr. Valencia-Laver, what has been learned about the effects of aging on cognitive abilities?
there is a decline in fluid intelligence, and an increase in crystallized intelligence.
5. Dr. Valencia-Laver reported that Alzheimer's disease:
affects about one-half of those people over 85.
6. When considering emotional development in aging, which of the following seems to be the best estimate:
it appears that most of our traits remain stable over long periods of time.
7. Dr. Valencia-Laver concluded that __________ was an important social factor in successful aging.
8. The Seatle Longitudinal Study:
used the cross-sequential method.
9. In Dr. Walford's study with mice,
calorie restricted mice did better on all measures and lived longer.
1. In describing Freud's theory of personality:
- Freud formulated his theory on a very skewed sample of the population.
- His theory was too sexualized.
- Freud's notion of "defense mechanism" is still widely used in modern day therapy.
2. According to Carl Rogers' theory, the answer to "How do you know if something is right for you?":
"You just know".
3. In Carl Rogers' theory of personality:
- the actualizing tendency is limited by one's genetic potential.
- there is a "Force" within us called the organismic valuing process which tells us whether our experiences are good or bad for us.
- the OVP knows what is best for the person.
4. In order to be mentally healthy, Carl Rogers' claims that we should give and receive
unconditional positive regard.
5. According to Don in his discussion of Carl Rogers,
- when you are NOT true to yourself, you feel anxiety.
- the actualizing tendency is an innate striving to "be all that you can be".
- when we do things to obtain approval and acceptance from others, we often do things which are not consistent with our true selves.
- subception suggests we know when we are doing something that is not consistent with our true selves.
1. The CBT approach to therapy focuses on:
how people process information.
2. According to Dr. Estrada's lecture, the humanistic approach to therapy is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT ?
the client attempts to empathize with the therapist and see the world from the therapist's perspective so that she can determine what she should do.
3. Dr. Estrada noted that psychodynamic therapy involves all of the following EXCEPT
transference of the therapist's emotions onto the client.
4. Journaling and daily activity records are most likely to be used by:
cognitive behavior therapy.
5. In terms of cognitive behavior therapists, Dr. Estrada indicated that they
believe that clients need to change irrational thoughts as a prerequisite to changing behaviors.
humanistic approach is characterized by
- unconditional positive regard.
-a genuine and empathetic therapist.
-function in the here and now.
psychodynamic therapy involves
-exploring how individuals avoid thoughts and important feelings.
-an attempt to make unconscious conflicts conscious.
-recognizing the impact of early life experiences as important.
1. Which of the following is the correct sequence of the stages of prenatal development?
zygote, embryo, fetus.
2. Which of the following is true about a newborn's motor and sensory capabilities?
- the child possesses a rooting reflex.
- the child can taste different flavors.
3. The research of Harry Harlow on rhesus monkeys revealed:
frightened babies ran to the terry cloth "mother" which provided contact comfort.
4. In the experimental method used to assess the attachment between mothers and their babies, a child who doesn't seem to care whether or not the mother leaves the room is called:
insecurely attached: avoidant.
5. When a small child appropriately labels a strange cocker spaniel, "doggie", she is demonstrating:
6. One of the main criticisms of Piaget's theory is:
Piaget failed to recognize how early cognitive abilities can appear.
7. Telegraphic speech:
describes word combinations that omit unnecessary words like articles and auxiliary verbs.
8. Which of the following would NOT be evidence to support the necessity of Chomsky's innate mental module?
children learn by imitating adults and responding to their parents' corrections.
9. _________ is when one possesses a fundamental sense of being male or female.
10. Based on the marshmallow study:
the children who delayed gratification were better at controlling negative emotions and doing well in school.
11. Which style of parenting appears to be the most successful in establishing self-regulation and delay of gratification?
12. The research on early maturing girls found that these girls:
are socially popular, but have a negative body image and more conflict with their parents.
13. The crisis of" intimacy versus isolation" is characteristic of ______________.
14. Which form of intelligence may actually improve in old age?
15. What does the text conclude about resilience?
- resilience is ordinary.
- easy going temperaments help children deal with trauma.
- secure attachments can be made with siblings, peers, or other adults.
1. Which of the following is a legal criteria for "insanity" and not a psychological criteria for defining mental disorders?
not aware of the consequences of their behavior.
2. A student has been diagnosed using a projective test. What is the main weakness of projective tests?
low reliability and validity.
3. The aim of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual is:
it provides a clear description of a disorder.
4. The principal characteristic of anxiety disorders is that:
fear and anxiety have become detached from apparent danger, or the danger does not turn off when the danger is past.
5. The anxiety disorder Agoraphobia is best described as:
fear of being alone in a public place or fear of being away from a safe place.
6. In the now scientifically questioned biological explanation of depression,
there may be a deficiency of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
7. Marie's relationships have been intense and volatile. She initially idolizes her partner, then becomes fearful of abandonment, gets very emotional, loses the relationship, degrades her former partner, then begins to cut herself. Marie could probably be diagnosed as:
borderline personality disorder.
8. One reason why antisocial individuals do not seem to be able to learn from the negative consequences of their acts:
they are unable to feel the anxiety necessary for learning when punished.
9. Brain damage to the ______________ may be a significant cause of APD.
10. Which of the following would be consistent with the Dissociative Identity Disorder?
patient has multiple personalities.
11. The likely explanation of why the rate of alcoholism if much higher in Ireland than Italy:
Irish condone adult drinking and forbid children to drink; the Italians condemn adult drinking and teach children to drink responsibly.
12. If you believe that controlled (moderate) drinking is possible for an individual who had problems with alcohol in the past, you are endorsing
he Bud-Wise-her Model.
13. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of people suffering from Schizophrenia?
multiple personalities that constantly emerge.
14. Which of the following is true of schizophrenia?
there may be excessive pruning of the synapses during adolescence.
15. Identify the "fictional" statement about suicide:
asking someone you suspect is thinking about suicide may lead them to suicide.
1. Antipsychotic drugs work by:
reducing the sensitivity of brain receptors that respond to dopamine.
2. What do the three major types of antidepressant drugs have in common?
elevate the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
3. Which of the following is considered to be a limitation of drug therapies by the text?
long-term side effects are unknown.
4. Electroshock treatment:
is effective for severely depressed patients for which no other treatments have worked.
5. Which of the following treatment has as its goal: "promoting insight into the unconscious reason for one's symptoms?"
6. Transference occurs when:
a conflicted element of the patient's inner life is transferred onto the therapist.
7. A step-by-step process of replacing an unwanted emotional response with an incompatible response:
8. In rational emotive behavior therapy, the therapist:
uses rational arguments to challenge a client's unrealistic beliefs.
9. Which therapy is based on the assumption that people are basically good but have gotten derailed by self-imposed limits?
10. Existential therapy is best suited for:
someone who wants to introspect about the meaning of life.
11. Which of the following do your authors say exemplifies a common characteristic of psychotherapy?
replacing a self-defeating life story with a life narrative that is more hopeful.
12. One way to resolve the scientist-practioner gap is using "randomized control trials." This means:
people with a given disorder are randomly assigned to treatment groups.
13. If a client is responding to the death of a loved one with "susto (loss of soul)":
the therapist should recognize that it is a culturally determined response and not necessarily a psychological disorder.
14. Self-help groups:
are accepting and tolerant, offer support, and problem solving guidance.
15. Which of the following would best treated with behavior and cognitive therapies?
Recommended textbook explanations
Carolyn Seefer, Mary Ellen Guffey
Child Development: An Active Learning Approach
Richard A. Kasschau
David Barlow, Stefan Hofmann, V Durand
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