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Arts and Humanities
ENGL 3630 (Module 16- Module 28)
Terms in this set (195)
The goal of these assessments, which are used after the fact (post-teaching), is to make decisions about the effectiveness of the teaching strategies used.
This refers to the trustworthiness or dependability of results obtained from assessment administrations given to the same set of students under different circumstances.
Which Principle of Classroom Reading Development states that if you know the highest level reading skills that your students can do alone (X), then you can accurately predict which reading skill they should learn next (Y) with your assistance?
Principle 4: Analyze Students' Assessment Results Using If-Then Thinking
Are administered to all students to provide a portrait of where students are in their reading development, as well as any preexisting deficits that may put them at risk for making inadequate progress.
Purpose is to help teachers identify specific reading problems so they can plan appropriate instructional interventions.
Teachers assess student progress at least three times during the school year at predetermined intervals.
Used to determine the overall effectiveness of the literacy program for all students.
The purpose of these assessments is to compare student scores against specific criteria such as reading curriculum goals, lesson objectives, or benchmark standards.
The goal of these ongoing assessments is to help teachers identify what students have learned during and after instruction and to decide who may need assistance and with which strategies and skills.
Which Principle of Classroom Reading Development states that it is your job as a teacher to locate where each child is in his or her development so you can offer appropriate instruction to continue growth and fill in any learning gaps?
Principle 1: The Teacher's Goal is to Find Out What Children Can Do
The purpose of these assessments is to compare an individual student's test scores to another group of students who took the same test.
This refers to the degree to which an assessment actually measures what it is claiming to measure.
Books read at what percentage of accuracy while conducting a running record are considered to be at the student's instructional level?
The products of on-going assessment can serve the dual purpose of instruction and assessment.
The "standardization" of on-demand assessments causes a decrease in the reliability of the assessment.
These are teacher notes describing a child's behavior. In addition to the child's name, the date, and the classroom area, the specific event or product should be described exactly as it was seen and heard.
Vignettes or Teacher Reflections
Recordings of recollections of significant events make after the fact, when the teacher is free from distractions; are prepared some time after a behavior has occurred and are based on a teacher's memory of the event.
Observational aids that specify which behaviors to look for and provide a convenient system for keeping records; can make observations more systematic and easier to conduct.
Essentially a visual recording of the student's reading word by word, enabling a teacher to identify the reading strategies the student may or may not be using and the types of errors the student makes while reading.
These standardized tests can be used to determine whether a school's curriculum reflects national expectations of what children should know at a specific grade level and to compare students to one another.
The results of on-going assessment are not immediately available, so they have no immediate effect on instruction for each child.
On-demand assessments are administered, scored, and interpreted the same way for all test takers.
For English Language Learners, it is important to measure content knowledge without the interference of language, especially when assessing ELLs who are at lower levels of English proficiency.
Parent-Teacher Conferences should feature a one-way exchange of information - from teacher to parent.
During a Parent-Teacher Conference, when areas of concern are discussed, it is important to provide examples of the child's work or review the observational data to illustrate the point.
The goal of these tests is for all students to demonstrate mastery of the information and skills they have been taught.
Concepts about Books
Identify the front, back, top, and bottom of a book; turn the pages of a book correctly, holding the book upright; point to where a reader begins reading on a page.
Conventions of Print
Show that a reader reads left to right with return sweeps; find a requested letter or provide the letter's name; ask questions or make comments about letters.
Comprehension of Stories
Answer and ask literal questions about story; say new words and dialogue from story; connect information in stories to events in his/her life.
Attitude Toward Books
Participate in book-sharing routine with caregiver; listen attentively to a variety of genres; ask adults to read to him/her.
What is another term that is used for on-going assessment?
Books read with what percentage of accuracy while conducting a running record are considered to be at the frustration level and generally are not appropriate for either guided or independent reading?
89% or less
The writing process is recursive, not linear.
What do Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod, and Rosen (1975) define as "the manner in which the writer expresses a relationship with the reader in respect to the writer's understanding"?
What is the name of the process where students read their rough drafts to locate and mark possible errors?
Stage One - Prewriting
The getting-ready-to-write stage, where writers start the writing process before they've completely thought out their topic.
Stage Two - Drafting
The stage where students get their ideas down on paper and write on every other line to leave space for revisions.
Stage Three - Revising
The stage where students clarify and refine the ideas in their compositions.
Stage Four - Editing
The stage where students polish their compositions, where the focus changes from content to mechanics.
Stage Five - Publishing
The stage where students bring their compositions to life by sharing them with classmates, parents, or community members.
Once in a while in the Editing Stage, students change a correct spelling and make it incorrect, but they correct far more errors than they create.
Writers should be sure to revise their rough drafts immediately after finishing them.
Teachers should limit the number of revision suggestions they make and should make all suggestions specific.
In the drafting stage, students should be sure to write slowly, being careful not to make any spelling errors.
What word means "seeing again"?
Autobiographies; biographies; directions; interviews; reports
Original short stories; personal narratives; retellings of stories; sequels to stories; scripts of stories
Advertisements; book and movie reviews; commercials; opinion
Acrostic poems; five senses poems; found poems; free verse
Mechanical skills are best taught during the drafting stage.
What percentage of writing time does Murray (1982) believe should be spent on prewriting?
What is the name that Graves and Hansen (1983) give to a specially-designated place that students can use to read their stories to their classmates?
Sommers (1979) argued that since we can see significant recurring patterns in composing, we can hypothesize that the composing process is both linear and ___________?
What was the name given to the first modern theory of the composing process?
According to theorists like Bruffee and Bizzell, even when a writer seems to be just trying to get down some ideas, seemingly heedless of the audience, she is functioning within a _____________ context?
The most natural type of writing, meant to express ideas to a known audience.
A complex discourse between the self and a subject and deals with audience only peripherally.
It communicates information, but it places the writer in a passive role and engages her in a complex relationship with the audience.
What type of approach did Emig (1971) use to research her subject's approach to the composing process?
What is the name of the movement from the 1960s that helped to create the breakthrough for understanding the importance of teaching the composing process?
New Education Movement
What type of methodology did Emig (1971) use to research her subject's approach to the composing process?
What is the name that Emig gives to the personal writing initiated by the student?
Consists of generating information, organizing ideas, and setting various goals.
Expresses the planned material in the visible language of acceptably written language.
Involves evaluating and revising the written text to improve its quality.
What were the "Pre-writing" theories of Rohman and Wlecke primarily concerned with?
What is the name that Emig gives to the formal writing sponsored by the teacher?
Children want, and need, to talk to their teachers about their writing.
In writing, children using word processors do which of the following:
Have fewer fine motor control problems
Teachers can demonstrate how expert writers write by talking through what they are doing as they write.
Teachers should introduce Writing Center materials gradually so as not to overwhelm their students.
Teachers should avoid talking about the similarities between the reading and writing processes because it just confuses students.
According to Graves (2004), how much time should children be given to write daily?
Forty-five to sixty minutes per day
Children dislike sharing their writing with their peers.
According to Martinez and Teale (1987), teachers should always use lined paper when teaching young children how to write.
Reading and writing are reciprocal processes.
Reading contributes to students' writing development and writing contributes to students' reading development.
How long did it take the Internet to reach a user base of 50 million people?
What Internet users use to navigate from page to page
The elements that enable users to move on the web and find the information they seek
Uniform Resource Locator
The more formal name for a website address
What each source that is identified through a keyword search is called
Practicing using keyboarding software for how many minutes at a time can help children develop the skills they need?
10 to 15 minutes
Kindergarten through Grade 2
Language Experience Stories; Interactive Group Stories; Alphabet Books; Community Journals; "All about Me" books; "All about Us" books; Content-Area Topic Books; Riddle Projects.
Grades 3 through 5
Autobiographies; Biographies; Mini-Research Reports; Timelines; Stories; Newspapers; Scripts; Poetry Forms.
Grades 6 through 8
Reports in the Content Areas; Expressive Writing; Newsletters; Editorials; Posters and Advertisements; Storyboards.
What is the name of the activity that has students use the Internet to discover answers to questions and allows teachers to plan specific tasks that engage students in analyzing information and demonstrating their understanding of it?
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students choose the final form, make a final copy of the writing, and share pieces by reading them aloud?
Personal word books are great places for students to record words for things they want to write about but are likely not in a dictionary.
A word wall should be built up throughout the year.
Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of teaching spelling every day as part of a student-centered approach to teaching language skills.
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students put their ideas down on paper, focus on meaning rather than conventions, try out possibilities, and talk over drafts with others?
It is important that a text be 100% free of errors before it gets to the publishing stage.
Invented spelling is something that must be explicitly taught.
Definitions must be included with the word in a Personal Word Book.
Children are aware of the purposes of writing but lack the concept of "word" and that words can be divided into phonemes; use scribbles, letter-like forms, and alphabet symbols to represent words.
Children understand that letters represent sounds in words; they begin to use letter spellings to make the association between letters and sounds, making closer approximations to true spelling but omitting major sounds.
Children are able to represent all the surface sound features of words and spell words they way they sound to them; they have invented a system of phonetic spelling, based on their awareness that letters and words represent sounds.
Children begin to spell conventionally at this stage; in addition to being able to spell based on their awareness of how words sound, they can now spell based on their awareness of how words look; their invented spelling is interspersed with correct spelling.
Children are beginning to spell correctly; their knowledge of word meanings is growing; they are better able to use complicated vowel patterns; however, they are probably still struggling with consonant doubling and word affixes, but have mastered root words, past tense, and short vowels.
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students rethink what they've written, share with others in a reader's circle, conference with the teacher and other students, clarify meaning, and expand ideas?
During the drafting stage, students should be taught not to spend time worrying about spelling or grammar.
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students share and draw on their own experiences, read or listen to stories read aloud, generate ideas and organize thinking, talk over ideas with others, and brainstorm ideas?
During which stage of the Writer's Workshop should students proofread, rephrase and refine, check spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage, form and legibility, and correct the draft to create a final copy?
A Simple Sentence
A sentence that contains only one independent clause.
A Compound Sentence
A sentence that has two or more independent clauses.
A Complex Sentence
A sentence that contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
A Compound-Complex Sentence
A sentence that has two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
What type of usage error is a student making when they say "we was" or "he don't"?
Lack of Subject-Verb Agreement
They make statements
They ask questions
They issue commands.
They communicate strong emotion or surprise
What are the two parts that a sentence must have?
A Subject and a Predicate
What type of usage error is a student making when they say "hisself" or "them books"?
Nonstandard Pronoun Form
What type of usage error is a student making when they say "I don't got none" or "Joe didn't see nobody"?
What does Weaver (1996) define as the description of the syntax or structure of a language and prescriptions for its use, involving the principles of word and sentence formation?
Teachers choose a sentence from a book students are reading and divide it into phrases. They present the phrases in random order, and students try to duplicate the author's original order by rearranging the phrases and unscrambling the sentence. Then students compare their rearrangement with the author's.
Students choose a sentence with an interesting structure to imitate from a book students are reading. Then students create a new sentence on a new topic that imitates the structure and style of the original sentence.
Students combine and rearrange words in sentences to make the sentences longer and more conceptually dense.
Teachers choose a rich sentence from a book students are reading and present an abridged version. Then students expand it, taking care that the words and phrases they add blend in with the author's style.
A word used to name something - a person, a place, or a thing.
A word used in place of a noun
A word used to describe a noun or pronoun
A word used to show action or state of being
A word or group of words used to show position, direction, or how two words or ideas are related to each other
A word used to connect words and groups of words
A word or phrase used to express strong emotion and set off by commas or an exclamation point
What does Weaver (1996) define as correctness, or using the appropriate word or phrase in a sentence or the socially preferred way of using language within a dialect?
As a general rule, journal writing should not be corrected.
Type 1: Capture ideas
Students write one draft to get a minimum number of ideas down on paper in a set amount of time. Writing is evaluated as complete or incomplete.
Type 2: Respond correctly
Students write one draft to demonstrate understanding. Writing is evaluated for correctness of ideas.
Type 3: Edit for focus correction areas (FCAs)
Students write a draft with attention to up to three targeted writing skills (e.g., topic sentence, conclusion, supporting details, content-specific vocabulary, varied sentence structure, punctuation). Writing is evaluated for content and relative to FCAs.
Type 4: Peer edit for FCAs
Like Type 3 writing but critiqued by a peer.
Type 5: Publish
Students produce a publishable piece. Writing is evaluated for content and form.
Teacher produces a text in enlarged print on a writing easel, white board, chalk board, overhead projector, or on a computer projected on a screen; the teacher controls the pen and writes the text on her own.
The teacher controls the pen and acts as a scribe, allowing students to dictate the text and make decisions about the content, vocabulary, conventions, grammar, and style.
Teacher guides students through a particular writing activity designed to address an area of need within students' writing development; typically starts with a mini-lesson on some aspect of writing. Students then practice the writing principle or strategy they were just taught, under the teacher's supervision, and then share their final written projects.
The students and teacher compose the text together; the students share the pen; the teacher begins by guiding the class to form a sentence; then, one word at a time, the teacher helps the students write each word of the sentence slowly.
During Shared Writing, the teacher should be sure to just write whatever the students say and how they say it, errors and all.
During Interactive Writing, the teacher should not worry about handwriting.
Students should include the date on each entry when writing in their Journals.
All writing experts are in agreement that teachers should always assign a topic for students to write about in their Journals.
Modeled writing is an effective tool for teaching new vocabulary to students within a meaningful and authentic context.
Under which type of validity are the constructs concurrent and predictive validity included.
Rates or ranks writing proficiency as reflected in a given sample; may be comprised of four to ten levels or bands; each band corresponds to a score, a set of descriptors, and benchmark writing samples.
Relies on a rating scale that separates textual features and predetermines their weight; components such as content, organization, cohesion, style, vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and mechanics are pre-assigned a maximum numerical value, with decreasing step scales or bands described within each component.
Focuses on only one salient facet at a time, such as the development of an argument, but not any other facets.
Focuses on several facets at a time, usually three or four, such as content, structure, and language, but not any other facets.
Is achieved by ensuring that teachers and students perceive that the instrument measures what it purports to measure.
Refers to theoretical claims that factors such as development, organization, and issues of grammar and mechanics are major components of proficiency in writing; requires us to measure composing skills by setting writing tasks and assessing the features that we have decided to measure.
Indicates how strongly an instrument's results correlate with some external (and more concrete) measure, other than another test.
Implies that a test measures what it is supposed to measure; elicits writing that allows the reader to see a sufficient and accurate sample of what the writer can do with the key ideas and skills to be mastered
Entails the ethical, ideological, social, and economic impact that assessment results may have on students' motivation, attitudes, aspirations, educational progress, and career prospects.
In writing assessment, this refers broadly to the extent to which an instrument truly measures what it is intended to measure
In writing assessment, this refers to the consistency with which a writing sample - traditionally called a test of writing - is assigned the same rank or score after multiple ratings by trained evaluators.
Involves students' psychological and physical state and general readiness to face the cognitive demands of academic tasks such as writing.
Entails how closely the scores assigned by two or more raters agree.
Involves features of the writing task, such as content, format, length, and the comprehensibility of task directions.
What is appropriate for a fifth grade student born in the United States may not be appropriate for a 10- or 11-year-old refugee English Language Learner student.
For English Language Learners (ELLs) who come from cultures where students conform to the group, sharing personal opinions poses difficulties.
English Language Learners (ELLs) need ample opportunities to use language in context.
All language transfer from an English Language Learner's first language is "positive" transfer.
The English oral language skills of English Language Learners (ELLs) have the most impact on word-level writing skills
All English Language Learners (ELLs) are familiar with the Roman alphabet.
There is no proven relationship between English Language Learners' (ELLs) ability to express themselves orally and their ability to express themselves in written English.
Research suggests that letter formation and spelling skills may most easily transfer for those literate students whose native language, such as Spanish, French, German, or Tagolog, uses the same alphabet as English.
Sentence level errors by English Language Learners (ELLs) may be influenced by their primary [native] language(s).
The writing development process for English Language Learners (ELLs) is similar to the process for native English speakers.
Like in English, the composition conventions in all languages dictate that a written composition must begin with a thesis in the first paragraph.
Overall, teachers can expect English Language Learners (ELLs) to write perfect papers every time.
it is important to correct all surface grammatical errors of English Language Learner's (ELLs) writing, since it will lead to significant improvement in subsequent writing tasks
According to Leki (1992), a good way to view English Language Learner's (ELLs) grammatical errors is to view second language writing as a kind of foreign accent.
English Language Learners (ELLs) with literacy skills in their native language can never transfer those skills to English writing
Normally in the editing stage, all errors are corrected. You should do the same for low-achieving students.
During the revising stage, you should demonstrate to low-achieving students the shortcuts they can take.
During the planning stage, you should have younger low-achieving students use drawing to encapsulate their ideas, because drawing provides them with a stable prompt for suggesting what details they might develop and that taps into another dimension, helping them retrieve details they might not have thought of.
During writing conferences, low-achieving students may reveal the process they are using in their writing, the struggles they are having, and the personal perceptions that may hinder their progress.
Since low-achieving students may have limited experience selecting topics, teachers should model the process for them.
It is important to let low-achieving students know that the piece they are writing is ultimately the writer's responsibility
When working with low-achieving students in the drafting stage, you should emphasize correct spelling, capitalization, handwriting, and the appearance of the paper.
In general, low-achieving students tend to have compositions that are long and wordy.
If the handwriting of low-achieving students is a serious problem, you can have students dictate their pieces or use a word processor if they have adequate keyboarding skills.
Low-achieving students find writing even more difficult than reading.
You should specify that all writing tasks will be formally assessed
Which of the 12 principles of Portfolio development allows writers to "explain their learning, how portfolio entries evolved, how entries compare to one another, and how writing has enhanced their literacy skills"?
What does the National Writing Project (2010) define as "a compilation of a writer's products, displayed in the form of a Web site, slideshow, or other form of multimedia"?
Which of the 12 principles of Portfolio development allows writers to "present a series of drafts leading to an exemplary final product, enabling them to represent their processes as writers and readers as reflected in sequential iterations of their products"?
Evolution Over Time
Collection is the source of a Portfolio's greater type of which validity?
Teachers may need to restrict the time spent on assessing each piece of writing to a fixed period, for example, 15 to 20 minutes per sample.
Students should never be involved in assessing their own writing and that of their peers.
Which of the 12 principles of Portfolio development "promotes revision, encouraging students to assume responsibility for their learning by giving them control over how they manage their time"?
Students should be given options from which to select when compiling their Portfolio collection.
Portfolios require very particular scoring procedures.
What type of meaning is the one we rely on when we identify certain social characteristics of speakers and situations from the character of the language the speaker uses?
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