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Chapter 6- Basics of Chemistry

Milady's Esthetics Textbook Glossary Definitions and Course Management Guide Quiz Questions
STUDY
PLAY
All living things, whether plant or chemical contain:
CARBON
Which of these is an example of an organic substance?
FERTILIZER, PLASTIC, & GASOLINE (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
The smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element is called a(n):
ATOM
Which part of an atom has a negative charge?
ELECTRON
When two or more atoms are joined chemically, it forms a(n):
MOLECULE
A _______ is made up of two or more atoms that are chemically joined together
MOLECULE
Liquids:
HAVE A DEFINITE SIZE BUT NOT A DEFINITE SHAPE
Which of these is considered a type of matter?
WATER
Rusting iron and burning wood are examples of changes in:
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
When water becomes ice, it:
UNDERGOES A PHYSICAL CHANGE
A ________ is a change in the state of a substance, without the formation of a new substance.
CHEMICAL CHANGE
The lightest element on earth is:
HYDROGEN
The most abundant element found on earth is:
OXYGEN
Water makes up about ______ of the human body.
65%
The relative degree of _________ is the potential hydrogen of a substance.
ACIDITY OR ALKALINITY
Anything below 7 on the pH scale is considered:
ACIDIC
A pH of 10 is ________ more alkaline than a pH of 7.
1000 TIMES
The skin's protective barrier against certain forms of bacteria an microorganisms is called the:
ACID MANTLE
The two types of chemical reactions that are important to estheticians are:
ACID-ALKALI, OXIDATION-REDUCTION
How do antioxidants prevent oxidation from occurring?
NEUTRALIZE FREE RADICALS
_________ substances make up the physical mixtures of solutions, suspensions, and emulsions.
TWO OR MORE
Which of these is an example of a solution?
AIR, HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, & SALT WATER (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
An unstable mixture of two or more ________ substances united with the aid of an emulsifier is an emulsion.
IMMISCIBLE
Suspensions are made of __________ of two or more substances.
UNIFORM MIXTURES
Which of these is an example of a suspension?
AEROSOL HAIR SPRAY
One end of the surfactant molecule is hydrophilic, and the other is:
LIPOPHILIC
Which of these tends to separate over time?
SUSPENSIONS AND EMULSIONS
O/W emulsions are often:
MILKY, FREE-FLOWING LIQUIDS
The advantage of O/W emulsions is that they:
ARE EASILY RINSED AWAY WITH WATER
Which of these is an example of a O/W emulsion?
COLD CREAM
The rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light is called:
COMBUSTION
ACID MANTLE
Protective lipids and secretions on top of the skin.
ACID-ALKALI NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS
When an acid is mixed with an alkali, also called a base, in equal proportions to neutralize each other and form water (H20) and a salt.
ACIDS
Substances that have a pH below 7.0, taste sour, and turn litmus paper from blue to red.
AIR
The gaseous mixture that makes up the earth's atmosphere. It is odorless, colorless, and generally consists of about 1 part oxygen and 4 parts nitrogen by volume.
ALKALIES
Also called bases; have a pH above 7.0, taste bitter, and turn litmus paper from red to blue.
ANTIOXIDANTS
Free radical scavengers, vitamins and ingredients. Antioxidants also inhibit oxidation. They are used both to help the condition of the skin and to stop the oxidation that causes products to turn rancid and spoil.
ATOMS
The smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element.
CHEMICAL CHANGE
Change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed that have properties different from the original.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Those characteristics that can be determined only with a chemical reaction and that cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
CHEMISTRY
Science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter and with how matter changes under different conditions.
COMBUSTION
Rapid oxidation of any substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.
COMPOUND MOLECULES
Chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements.
ELEMENT
The simplest form of matter; cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity.
ELEMENTAL MOLECULES
Chemical combinations of two or more atoms of the same element.
EMULSIONS
An unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier.
FREE RADICALS
"Super" oxidizers that cause an oxidation reaction and produce a new free radical in the process; are created by highly reactive atoms or molecules (often oxygen) having an unpaired number of electrons. Free radicals are unstable and can damage DNA, causing inflammation and disease in the body.
HYDROGEN
Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas; the lightest element known.
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
Chemical compound of hydrogen and oxygen; a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and slightly acid taste.
IMMISCIBLE
Not capable of being mixed.
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Branch of chemistry dealing with elements that do not contain carbon.
LIPOPHILIC
Having an affinity or attraction to fat and oils.
LOGARITHMIC SCALE
A method of displaying data in multiples of 10.
MATTER
Any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).
MISCIBLE
Capable of being mixed with another liquid in any proportion without separating.
MOLECULE
A chemical combination of two or more atoms.
NITROGEN
Colorless, gaseous element that makes up four-fifths of the air in the atmosphere.
OIL-IN-WATER (O/W) EMULSION
Oil droplets dispersed in a water with the aid of an emulsifying agent.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Study of substances that contain carbon.
OXIDATION
Chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.
OXIDATION REDUCTION (REDOX) REACTIONS
One of the most common types of chemical reactions; prevalent in all areas of chemistry. When oxygen is added to a substance, the substance is oxidized; for example rust forms with oxygen is added to iron.
OXIDIZE
To combine or cause a substance to combine with oxygen.
OXYGEN
The most abundant element on earth.
pH
Relative degree of acidity an alkalinity to a substance.
PHYSICAL CHANGE
Change in the form of physical properties of a substance without a chemical reaction or the formation of a new substance.
PHYSICAL MIXTURE
Combination of two or more substances united physically, not chemically, without a fixed composition and in any proportions.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the identity of a substance.
REDOX
Acronym for reduction oxidation; chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced and the reducing agent is oxidized.
REDOX REACTIONS
Oxidation and reduction happening at the same time.
REDUCTION
The loss of oxygen from a substance.
SOLUTE
A substance that is dissolved by a solvent to form a solution.
SOLUTIONS
A uniform mixture of two or more mutually miscible substances.
SURFACTANTS
Surface active agents that reduce surface tension between the skin and the product to increase product spreadability; also allow oil and water to mix; detergents and emulsifiers.
SUSPENSIONS
State in which solid particles are distributed throughout a liquid medium.
WATER
Most abundant of all substances, comprising about 75 percent of the earth's surface and about 65 percent of the human body.
WATER-IN-OIL (W/O) EMULSION
Droplets of water dispersed in oil.