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APUSH: Unit 6
Terms in this set (36)
Who coined the term "Gilded Age?"
In what was were the years from 1877 to 1900 "gilded?"
Businesses prospered but laborers and farmers suffered
Reconstruction ends with the ________________________________________
Compromise of 1877
What Supreme Court ruling set the precedent for state-sanctioned segregation of the races?
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) - "separate but equal"
Who was Homer Plessy? What law did he break? Explain the law.
1/8 African American who tested the constitutionality of Louisiana's Separate Car Act
What arguments did the plaintiff use in Plessy v. Ferguson?
The law violated the 14th Amendment; a state cannot enforce any law that deprives a citizen of their personal liberties
How did the U.S. emerge at the world's leading industrial power by the year 1900? What factors made industrialization possible?
- abundance of land and natural resources (coal, iron, oil)
- strong labor force
- transportation advances
- new inventions
- leniency towards big businesses
What was the significance of the Transcontinental Railroad?
It was TRANScontinental; united the East and West
Who were the main contributors to the Transcontinental Railroad?
Chinese laborers (mostly single men)
How did the passage of the Homestead Act contribute to Western expansion?
encouraged people to migrate by promising free land after 5 years
What were the conditions on the Great Plains for farmers who moved there?
- prairie fires
________________________________________ were men from Norway/Scandinavia who regulated ________________________________________ in rivers so they could be harvested to make towns.
Rivermen, flow of logs
What impact did white hunter have on the buffalo population in the west? Why did they even want buffalo?
Decimated buffalo population; harvested the hide for profit
What effects did white settlement (particularly hunting) have on Native American communities?
they robbed the Natives of their primary resource, which forces them onto reservations to avoid starvation; fighting between groups
What did cowboys do?
Steer cattle on the "Long Drive" to Eastern markets who needed meat
Why did people become cowboys?
rejection of authority/spirit of individualism
About 1/3 of ________________________________________ were ________________________________________.
The end of the cowboy came with the advent of ________________________________________, invented by Joseph ________________________________________ to block cattle traits and settle boundary disputes.
barbed wire, Glidden
What did the Statue of Liberty symbolize?
America as a land of refugees/immigrants
How did Andrew Carnegie gain control of the steel industry?
Bessemer Process of burning carbon impurities
Who were roughnecks? What did they do?
European immigrants who worked on skyscrapers, very dangerous
Byrne's "Three Degrees" were...
persuasion, intimidation, pain
How did Byrnes revolutionize policing in NYC?
Used photography to create a "rogues gallery" (mugshots) and created a national crime register
Jacob Riis's photojournalism explored the _____________________ on __________________ in NYC. He published his book "____________________________", which shocked the wealthy.
conditions, tenements, How the Other Half Lives
Who was George Waring?
"apostle of clealiness"; head of NY's sanitation department
What were the effects of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire?
new wave of labor reform, Unions, and passage of the Life Safety Code
After the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, workers were paid in
Which American business magnate popularized steel trains?
The ______________________ involved numerous Gilded Age politicians and Union Pacific Railroad workers who effectively created a "sham" ______________________ to pay themselves inflated wages and trade stocks.
credit mobilier scandal, company
List some other examples of corrupt business practices during the Gilded Age. In what way do they make this era "guilded?"
stock watering, promoter profits; while business seemed like it was thriving, it was filled with corruption and deception
Business moguls often bribed/had unchecked control over...
judges, legislators, congressmen
"Rail barons", or "robber barons" made _______________________ to protect their profits.
What does horizontal integration involve?
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