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The fact that some pathogens can't be purified disobeys which postulates?


No animal model would stop which postulate from being fulfilled?


Asymptomatic carriers prevent which postulate from being fulfilled?


What was Koch unaware of when studying disease?

the effect of the host on the disease

Which four diseases did koch use his postulates to prove they had a bacterial cause for?

anthrax, tuberculosis, tetanus, botulism

Which one of these DID fulfil all Koch's postulates?
-Vibrio cholerae
-H. pylori
-Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
-N. gonorrhoeae
-Listeria monocytogenes


Can asymptomatic carriers pass the disease on to others?


Name the surnames of the two australian scientists who proved Helicobacter pylori causes gastric cancer and stomach ulcers

Marshall and Warren

Which two postulates were hard for the aussies to fulfill?


What percentage of people with H. pylori never develop gastritis or ulcers?


What convinced scientists the bug caused the disease despite it not fulfilling all the postulates?

fifth postulate

Which antibiotics were required in the triple therapy?

Clarythromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole

Which two animals can be used as animal models for both TB and listeriosis?

Mice and guinea pigs

What animal does Salmonella typhimurium infect apart from humans?


The only animal model apart from humans for shigella is the:

Rhesus monkey

What must be used as a test subject for gonorrhea?

human volunteers

dose of microbe required to kill 50% of the inoculated animals

50% lethal dose

dose of microbe required to infect 50% of the inoculated animals

50% infectious dose

symbol for 50% lethal dose

LD 50

If one pathogen has a lower LD than the next, which(former/latter) is the more virulent pathogen?


this pathogen is predominant in those genetically predisposed to it by having CF

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

This pathogen takes advantage of damage to ciliated airway cells by the influenza virus to enter body

Streptococcus pneumoniae

This pathogen takes advantage of damage to ciliated airway cells by smoking or alcohol abuse to enter body

Legionella pneumophila

Top four killers in 1900 (F, P, T, G) NB: all from infectious diseases

Flu, pneumonia, tuberculosis, gastroenteritis

Top four killers in 2008 (H, C, S, P) NB: none from infectious diseases. [only influenza&pneumonia and AIDS on the top 10 death causes list]

Heart disease, cancer, stroke, pulmonary disease

What percent of deaths are due to infections in the continents of Africa and America, '02?

63, 11

What percent of deaths are due to cardiovascular disease in the continents of Africa and America, '02?

10, 32

Vaccination has reduced/eliminated which 6 diseases? (S, P, M, M, T, T)

Smallpox, polio, measles, mumps, tetanus, TB

Antibiotics can reduce/eliminate these 6 diseases, among many others (G, G, S, L, L, T)

gastric ulcers, gonorrhoea, syphilis, leprosy, listeriosis, TB

Food sterilisation etc has reduced/eliminated which 2 diseases?

Listeriosis and Salmonellosis

Water treatment has reduced/eliminated which 2 diseases?

Cholera and typhoid fever

Controlling insect vector population has reduced/eliminated which 2 diseases?


Which bacterium causes malaria?


How many deaths per year are there (in low income nations) due to diarrhoea and what percentage of total deaths does this make up?

1.8 million, 7

Give 3 examples of regions/countries with low income status

Afghanistan, Africa, Cambodia

Give 4 examples of regions/countries with medium income status

Albania, Chile, China, Egypt

Give 5 examples of regions/countries with high income status

Australia,Canada, NZ, UK, USA

Middle-income countries' top ten causes of death: does it list diarrhoea as one of them? and what are two infectious diseases that are on the list?

no, TB and Lower respiratory disease

What is the only infectious disease on the top 10 causes of death for high-income countries?

Lower respiratory disease

How many million cases of cholera are there and how many deaths per year?

3-5, 100,000-120,000

How many million cases of typhoid fever are there and how many deaths per year?

16-33, 200,000

name five common causes of waterbourne illnesses (C, E, G, L, N)

Cryptosporidium, E. coli O157:H7, Giardia, Legionella, Norovirus

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