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Antiemetic/Antinausea NCLEX questions
Terms in this set (11)
The nurse recognizes that metoclopramide (Reglan) is useful in treating postoperative nausea and vomiting because of what action?
A. It inhibits chemoreceptor stimulation.
B. It promotes motility in the small intestine.
C. It improves the body's response to analgesia.
D. It decreases peristalsis in the intestinal wall.
Metoclopramide works by increasing gastrointestinal (GI) motility in the small intestine, thus minimizing gastric distention and accompanying stimulation of the vomiting center.
When planning administration of antiemetic medications to a client, the nurse is aware that combination therapy is preferred because of which drug effect?
A. It is easier to achieve the desired level of sedation.
B. There are faster drug absorption and distribution.
C. Different vomiting pathways are blocked.
D. The risk of constipation is decreased.
Combining antiemetic drugs from various categories allows the blocking of the vomiting center and chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) through different pathways, thus enhancing the antiemetic effect.
In developing a plan of care for a client receiving an antihistamine antiemetic drug, which nursing diagnosis would be the highest priority?
A. Deficient fluid volume related to nausea and vomiting
B. Impaired physical mobility related to adverse effects of drugs
C. Deficient knowledge regarding medication administration
D. Risk for injury related to adverse effects of medication
Although all of the options are appropriate nursing diagnoses, fluid volume deficit is the highest priority because it has the highest associated mortality rate. Although a fall or injury could also prove fatal, this diagnosis is a risk; actual nursing diagnoses have priority over potential diagnoses.
A client receiving an anticholinergic drug to treat nausea and vomiting should be taught to expect which adverse effect?
B. Dry mouth
Anticholinergic drugs block the parasympathetic nervous system, which causes the body to "rest and digest." Blocking of these effects leads to constipation, urinary retention, and decreased secretions (dry mouth).
Which drug works by blocking serotonin receptors in the GI tract, vomiting center, and CTZ?
A. Meclizine (Antivert)
B. Metoclopramide (Reglan)
C. Ondansetron (Zofran)
D. Droperidol (Inapsine)
Ondansetron is a serotonin blocker. Metoclopramide is a prokinetic drug, meclizine is an antihistamine, and droperidol is an antidopaminergic drug.
Before administering the anticholinergic drug scopolamine (Transderm-Scōp), the nurse should carefully assess the client for a history of which condition?
D. Rheumatoid arthritis
Anticholinergic drugs are contraindicated in clients with glaucoma. These drugs can cause pupillary dilation, which can obstruct the flow of aqueous humor and increase intraocular pressure.
The nurse plans to administer 50 mg of diphenhydramine (Benadryl) intravenously. How will the nurse administer this medication?
A. Undiluted over 2 minutes
B. Diluted in 50 mL normal saline over 30 minutes
C. Undiluted over 1 minute
D. Diluted in 100 mL D5W over 20 minutes
Diphenhydramine should be administered undiluted at a rate of 25 mg/min.
The nurse should teach a client about which antiemetic commonly used to prevent motion sickness?
A. Prochlorperazine (Compazine)
B. Droperidol (Inapsine)
C. Metoclopramide (Reglan)
D. Scopolamine (Transderm-Scōp)
Scopolamine has potent effects on the vestibular nuclei, which are located in the area of the brain that controls balance. These effects make scopolamine one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment and prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness.
When planning to administer metoclopramide (Reglan), the nurse is aware that this drug must be given in regards to which fluid or food consideration?
A. Give with a full glass of water in the morning.
B. Take with 8 oz of orange or apple juice.
C. Take 30 minutes before meals and at bedtime.
D. Give with food to decrease GI upset.
Metoclopramide should be administered 30 minutes before meals and at bedtime. Administering the medication before meals allows time for onset to increase GI motility before food ingestion, thus decreasing stomach distention and resulting nausea and vomiting.
Which client statement indicates the need for further teaching about antiemetic medications?
A. "I may take Tylenol to treat the headache caused by ondansetron (Zofran)."
B. "I will not drive while I am taking these medications because they may cause drowsiness."
C. "I should take my prescribed antiemetic before receiving my chemotherapy dose."
D. "I will apply the scopolamine patch to my right or left arm and rotate sites of application."
Transdermal scopolamine patches should be applied to nonirritated areas behind the ear, not on the arms.
Antidopaminergic drugs are useful to treat not only nausea and vomiting but also which other conditions? (Select all that apply.)
Select all that apply.
B. Bone marrow suppression
D. Intractable hiccups
A., D., E.
Antidopaminergic drugs are used to treat psychotic disorders (mania, schizophrenia, anxiety), intractable hiccups, nausea, and vomiting.
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