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Terms in this set (17)
Draw global surface-ocean currents
how do surface currents form?
the winds blowing over the ocean
Draw the Ocean Conveyor Belt
Large, circular ocean current systems that often encompass an entire ocean basin.
is generated by the prevailing winds
How does the Coriolis effect influence surface currents?
the coriolis effect influences the paths of surface-ocean currents by the rotation of the earth from west to east cases surface ocean currents to swerve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, helping establish the circular, clockwise pattern of water current. In southern Hemisphere it swerve to the left, thereby moving in a circular counterclockwise pattern (look from the top or the bottom and will get it)
*deep ocean current travel in differnt speed because the coreolis effect is more pronouced in greater depths.
mass per unit volume
How does ocean water mix vertically?
cold, salty water is denser than warmer less salty water. (the density of water increase with decreasesing remperature down to 4 C).
colder,salty ocean water sinks and flows under warmer, less salty water(less dense),
Ocean Conveyor Belt
moves cold, salty deep sea water from higher to lower latitudes. not e that atlantic ocean gets its cold, deep water from the actic ocean, whereas the pacific and indian oceans get theirs from the water surrounding antarctica.
the ocean conveyor belt affects regional and possuble global climate.
As gulf stream and North atlantic drift push into the north atlandtic, they deliver an immense amount of heat from the tropics to europe. as this shallow current transfers its heat to the atmosphere, the water becomes denser and sinks. the deep current flowing southward in the north atlantic is
How does the ocean conveyor belt affect regional climate?
as the gulf stream and north atlantic brought immense amount of heat from the tropics to europe. it's responsible for the relatively warm climate in europe.
Has the ocean conveyor belt ever changed or had a different path in the Earth's history?
Yes during the ice age where the heat transferring stop because it's all ice.
El Niño - Southern Oscillation (figure 4.18 pg 75)
a periodic, large scale warming of surface waters of surface waters of the tropical eastern pacific ocean that affects both ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns
resposible for climate variability
typically last one - two years
come to the surface
How does El Niño affect coastal communities?
during the EnSO even the colder nutrient rich deep water and the warmer surface temperatures and weak trade winds prevent upwelling therfore. so there's there's the lack of nutrients in the water which results in a severe decrease in the populations of an chovies and many other marine fishes. --> affect the fisherman
How does El Niño start and stop?
start from strong trade winds--> warm water mpves away from coast --> cool nutrient-rich water upwells to surface
what are some of the global effects of El Niño?
property damages --> heavy snow in W US --> ice strom in eastern canada -->rain and flood in peru and california ecuqdor and etc.--> drought --> fires
How are the sun's energy, prevailing winds, and surface-ocean currents related?
the sun's energy unevenly heats the Earth's surface and the air. This uneven heating results in air circulation and wind. The persistent prevailing winds blowing over the ocean produce currents.
Discuss the roles of solar energy and the Coriolis effect in producing global water flow patterns, including gyres.
Surface-ocean currents result largely from prevailing winds, which in turn are generated from solar energy. Other factors that contribute to ocean currents include the Coriolis Effect, the position of landmasses, and the varying density of water. Gyres are large, Circular Ocean current systems that often encompass an entire ocean basin. Deep-ocean currents often travel in different directions and at different speeds than do surface currents. The present circulation of shallow and deep currents, known informally as the ocean conveyor belt, affects regional and possibly global climate
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