Neuro Exam 2

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ANS effectors innervate what?glands, smooth and cardiac muscleDescribe the SNS Efferent pathwaysingle, long, heavily myelinated axon; no gangliaDescribe the ANS efferent pathwaytwo-neuron chains; synapse at gangliamyelination of preganglionic (first) neuronlightly myelinatedmyelination of ganglionic (second) neuronunmyelinatedacetylcholine (ACh) is released byall somatic motor neuronspreganglionic fibers releaseACh. effect here is always stimulatorypostganglionic fibers releasenorepinephrine (NE) OR ACh. effect may be stimulatory OR inhibitoryEffect on target organ depends onneurotransmitter and receptor type on effectorThe sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions physically differ byfiber origin, fiber length, ganglia locationscholinergic fibersACh releasing axonsadrenergic fibersNE-releasing axonsTwo types of ACh receptorsnicotinic and muscarinicNicotinic receptors are found onall motor end plates, all post-ganglionic neurons, cells of adrenal medullaTrue or False? Effect of ACh on nicotinic receptors is always stimulatoryTrueMuscarinic receptors are found onall effectors innervated by postganglionic cholinergic fibersEffects of ACh binding to muscarinic receptors depends on target organheart > decreases heart rate, smooth muscle in stomach > increases contraction rateWhere are adrenergic receptors foundsympathetic effectorsWhat are the two types of adrenergic receptors?alpha and betaWhich adrenergic receptor is generally stimulatory and constricts blood vessels?AlphaWhich adrenergic receptor is generally inhibitory and dilates bronchioles and blood vessels?BetaplasticityAbility of neuronal system to alter function in response to changes in input both physiologically and pathophysiologicallyNeuroplasticitythe lifelong ability of the brain to reorganize as a result of experienceDoes all behavioral change necessarily involves neuroplasticity?NoCan Neural plasticity result in behavioral changes?YesTrue or False? Neural plasticity plays a substantial role in centrally remodeling human function after cerebral injuryTrueTen principles of neuroplasticityUse it or lose it, Use it and improve it, Specificity , Repetition matters, Intensity matters, Time matters, Salience matters, Age matters, Transference or generalization, InterferenceUse it or Lose itIf a neural substrate is not biologically active, its function can degradeUse it and improve itExtension of 1st principle, Increased biological activity, future functioning is enhanced, Skilled training/Target practice, Not merely use function, Use with increased competency, efficiency/accuracyplasticity is experience specificChanges may occur only in the neural substrate involved in the particular behavior being treatedRepetition mattersTo make CHANGE in neural substrates, Extensive practice, Prolonged practice, Variable practice, Consistent practice, To maintain functionrepetition matters practical applicationInsurance problems, Train care-takers/family members, Home Exercise program, Individualize plan for treatmentintensity mattersTraining must be continues over long periods to induce neural change in animals. More intense treatment in short period of time is keyTime mattersLonger & continuous (rather intermittent) training may maximize neural changes (Fisher & Sullivan, 2001) Early tx in post stroke, Cost effectiveage mattersYounger nervous systems are more responsive, Older brain may need more repetitions, PreventioninterferenceThe ability of plasticity within a given neural circuitry to impede the induction of new, or expression of existing plasticity within the same circuitryinterference exampleuse of unimpaired limb may impede recovery of impaired limbMeaning of Myasthenia GravisGrave Muscle WeaknessMyasthenia GravisAutoimmune response against acetlycholine (ACh), rapid weakening of voluntary muscle with use, Improvement with restSigns and Symptoms of Myasthenia GravisDrooping of one or both eyelids (ptosis), Double vision (diplopia), Speech impairment, Dysphagia, Weakness in neck, arms and legsMultiple SclerosisMultiple areas of scarring-MS, Autoimmune disease, Immune system attacks the myelin sheath, Impact brain and spinal cord (CNS), Relapsing-Remitting MS, Progressive MS, No cure for MSSigns and Symptoms of Multiple SclerosisNumbness and weakness (limbs), Electric-shock sensation, Partial or complete loss of vision, Double vision, Blurry vision, Speech impairment, Fatigue, DizzinessOur Primitive Brain's functionExpend the least amount of effort possible, Seek pleasure, Avoid pain3 things that help rewire the brainexercise, nature, nutritionReward chemicaldopamineThe love hormoneOxytocinDopamine is linked tomotivation, working memory, mental clarity and focus, energy and appetiteOxytocin is linked tosocial bond, interaction, emotional connection, decreased stress and anxiety, empathy, and decreased cortisolWithout the maintenance of ________ it is difficult to pay attention, form new memories and learnserotoninTrue or False? Serotonin levels are linked to the quality of your sleep, diet and fitnessTrueMood stabilizerSerotoninSerotonin is linked toImpulse control, pleasure and learning, memory, relaxation, satiety and digestionthe pain killerendorphinsendorphins providebrief euphoria that masks physical painEndorphins are believed toenhance immune system, postpone aging, lower blood pressure, modulate appetiteEndorphins linked toAnalgesia, bliss, euphoria, attention, disposition, well being, and physical boostMS causeThe immune system attacks the myelin coating around the nerves in the central nervous system (CNS - brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves) and the nerve fibers themselves.Where does the name of MS come from?Its name comes from the scarring caused by inflammatory attacks at multiple sites in the central nervous system.MS is notContagious, Directly inherited, Always severely disabling, Fatal—except in fairly rare instancesWho is typically diagnosed with MS?Usually diagnosed between 20 and 50. More common in women than men (2-3:1), Most common in those of Northern European ancestry, More common in Caucasians than Hispanics or African Americans; rare among Asians, More common in temperate areas (further from the equator)MS SymptomsFatigue (most common), Decreased visual acuity, diplopia, Bladder and/or bowel, dysfunction, Sexual dysfunction, Paresthesias (tingling, (numbness, burning), Emotional disturbances, (depression, mood swings) Cognitive difficulties (memory, attention, processing)Pain (neurogenic), Heat sensitivity, Spasticity, Gait, balance, and coordination problems, Speech/swallowing problems, TremorMS Symptomchronic or ongoing indicators of MS lesion damage in the brain, spinal cord, and/or optic nerveMS Relapsesudden flare-ups of disease activity (including new or worsening symptoms) that typically last several days to several weeks or monthsCommonly affected areas of MSOptic Nerve - visual field acuity, Corticospinal tracts - muscle strength, Corticobulbar tracts - speech and swallowing functions, Cerebellar tracts - gait and coordination, Spinocerebellar tracts - balance, Medial longitudinal fasciculus - conjugate gaze of the extraocular eye muscles, Dorsal columns - discriminative touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, kinesthesiaMGa neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness and fatigability of musclesUnderlying defect of MGa decrease in number of available ACH receptors at neuromuscular junctions due to an antibody- mediated autoimmune attackMyasthenia gravis is marked bymuscle weakness that worsens after activity and improves after rest.Is there a cure for MG?NoIs the face more effected in MS or MG?MGCause of MGreceptors at muscle surface are destroyed by antibodies, has a genetic linkThings that worsen MGFatigue, illness, stress, extreme heat, medications such as beta blockers/calcium channel blockers