chapter 7 chemistry honors questions
Terms in this set (58)
valence electrons that are free to move in metals; not held by any specific atoms
for a monatomic ion, is equal to the charge
the force that holds two atoms together
a charged particle containing more than one atom
a positively charged ion
a negatively charged ion
an ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts electricity
the name for most ionic compounds other than oxides
electron sea model
represents the way electrons exist in metals: the metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons that surrounds the metal cations in the lattice
a charged particle containing only one atom
the energy needed to separate the ions of an ionic compound
the electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together; formed when a positive ion is attracted to a negative ion and lattice energy is released
a mixture of elements that has metallic properties
a mixture formed when small atoms fill holes in a metallic crystal
a polyatomic ion composed of an element bonded to at least one oxygen atom
he chemical formula for an ionic compound is called a formula unit, represents the simplest ratio of the ions involved.
the attraction of a metallic cation for delocalized electrons
true or false: the overall charge of a formula unit for a compound is never zero
false (it is always zero)
true or false: in a crystal lattice, each positive ion is surrounded by negative ions
true or false: delocalized valence electrons are typical of ionic compounds
false (typical of metals)
true or false: a sulfate ion contains fewer oxygen atoms than a sulfite ion does
false: (contains more oxygen atoms)
true or false: metals tend to be malleable and ductile and to have relatively high melting points
true or false: the more negative the lattice energy is, the stronger the force of attraction between the ions of an ionic compound
true or false: in naming ionic compounds, the cation is named first
true or false: when a metal reacts with a nonmetal, the metal tends to gain electrons
false (the metal tends to lose electrons)
true or false: in naming a monatomic anion, the suffix -ide is used
the prefix per- is used in naming the anion with the most oxygen atoms
what is the electron configuration for the noble gases other than helium?
how many outermost d electrons are there in an ion that has achieved a pseudo-noble gas configuration?
the anion that has the formula ClO- (negative charge)
where does a subscript that indicated the number of atoms appear, relative to a chemical symbol in the formula
to the lower right
what is the formula of calcium phosphate, which is made up og teh ions Ca2+ (2+ in superscript) and PO43- (4 in subscript and 3- in superscript)
Ca3(PO4)2 (all numbers in subscript)
which of the following is an example of an interstitial alloy?
why are metals good conductors of electricity?
the movement of mobile electrons around positive metallic cations; the delocalized electrons move heat from one place to another much more quickly than the electrons in a material that does not contain mobile electrons
why do metals have luster?
delocalized electrons (they move freely in metals) interact with light, absorbing and releasing photons, creating luster
why are melting points not as extreme as the boiling points?
cations and valence electrons are mobile in a metal
some of the atoms in the original metallic solid are replaced by other metals of similar atomic size. (e.g. sterling silver, the resulting alloy has properties of both silver and copper)
formed when the small holes in a metallic crystal are filled with smaller atoms
a three-dimensional geometric arrangement of ions in ionic compounds (each cation ion is surrounded by the anions and each anion is surrounded by the cations.) Ionic crystals vary in shape due to the sizes and relative numbers of the ions bonded
lattice energy related to bond strength
The greater the lattice energy, the stronger the force of attraction within the ionic bond.
lattice energy related to the size of the ions bonded
lattice energy is inversely related to the sizes of the ions bonded. The smaller ions (stronger ionic bonds due to shorter distances between ions) require greater lattice energy to break the ionic bonds and the larger ions require less lattice energy to break the ionic bonds between the ions
lattice energy related to the charges of the ions bonded
lattice energy is directly related to the charges of the ions. The larger the positive or negative charges of the ions (the stronger the ionic bonds due to stronger attraction) require greater lattice energy to break the ionic bonds and the smaller the charges of the ions require less lattice energy.
melting point and boiling point in relation to ionic bonds
High melting and boiling point due to relatively strong ionic bonds
hardness related to ionic crystals
ionic crystals are hard, rigid, and brittle solids due to the strong attractive forces that hold the ions in place.
solid ionic compounds in relation to conductivity
solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity because in the solid state, the ions are locked into fixed positions by strong attractive forces.
liquid/aqueous ionic compounds in relation to conductivity
Liquid or aqueous (dissolved in water) ionic compounds can conduct electricity because the ions are free to move in the liquid or aqueous state
how do ionic compounds form in terms of valence electrons?
Ions give and receive their valence electrons to acquire the octet rule and make ionic compounds containing ionic bonds. In the ionic compounds, the electrons are completely transferred from the cations to the anions.
electrically neutral ionic compounds
The number of electrons lost is equal to the number of electrons gained in these types of ionic compounds
three physical properties of ionic solids that are linked to ionic bonds
Ionic solids exists as crystals and have high melting and boiling points
An ionic crystal is the geometric arrangement of positive and negative ions, they vary in shape because of the size of the ions that are bonded as well as the number of each type of ion bonded together
importance of electron affinity and ionization energy in the formation of ions
High electron affinity: atom easily gains an electron; low ionization energy: atom easily loses an electron
why are noble gases are not likely to form chemical bonds?
they already have a full, stable outer energy level
how do positive ions and negative ions form?
An atom gains or loses electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration
when do chemical bonds form?
when a positive nucleus attracts electrons of another atom, or oppositely charged ions attract
when do you use the -ide ending?
when you are using a nonmetal in the periodic table for a chemical formula
when do you the -ite ending?
when you are using a nonmetal in the polyatomic ionic table
what type of ions do metals form?
what type of ions do nonmetals form?