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AP US History Chapter 14
Terms in this set (60)
What was the Civil War known as in the South?
War Between the States
What was the Civil War known as in the North?
War of the Rebellion
After what event did secessionist fervor sweep through the Deep South?
Abraham Lincoln's election in November 1860.
The movement towards secession was most rapid in which state?
South Carolina. Robert Barnwell Rhett and other fire eaters had been calling for secession since the crisis of 1850.
What was the name of the union forged by the Southern states?
The Confederate States of America. They adopted a provisional constitution, named Jefferson Davis as the president, and Alexander Stephens as the vice-president.
What was President Buchanan's decision on secession before leaving office?
In his final message to Congress in December 1860 President Buchanan declared secession illegal, but denied that the federal government had the authority to restore the Union by force.
Jefferson Davis and his associates wanted a military confrontation with union troops to win the support of the border states; Davis demanded the fort surrender. Confederate forces open fired when Major Robert Anderson refused. Union forces capitulated on April 14. The next day, Lincoln called 75,000 militia men into federal service to put down the insurrection.
The Crittenden Compromise
Proposed a constitutional amendment to protect slavery from federal interference in any state where it already existed. The second provision called for the westward extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the California border (36'30). On strict instructions from Lincoln, congressional Republicans rejected the second provision.
What was Lincoln's position on slavery as articulated in his inaugural address?
He promised to safeguard slavery where it existed; however, he stated there must be free soil in the territories. He stated secession was illegal and that the Union would be preserved, even if it meant war.
Why was Kentucky, a border state, essential to the Union?
Kentucky, with it's 500 mile border on the Ohio River, was essential to the movement of troops and supplies.
Why was Maryland, a border state, essential to the Union?
Maryland was vital to the Union's security because it bordered the nation's capital on the north.
In October 1861, voters in the yeomen region overwhelmingly approved the formation of a breakaway territory which was admitted to the Union as a state in 1863.
A battle in September 1862 in which Lee took the offensive and led his army across the Potomac into Maryland, hoping that a major Northern victory would lead to European support. It was the single bloodiest day in the war. McClellan knew his plans, but did not pursue Lee as he retreated into Virginia. It was officially a draw, but it ended Confederate hope for foreign support, so Lincoln used this partial triumph to push his Emancipation Proclamation
A war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
Why was it difficult for Jefferson Davis to harness the resources of the South?
The eleven states of the Confederacy remained deeply suspicious of centralized rule.
Military Draft in the South
After the bloody battle at Shiloh, the Confederacy imposed the first legally binding draft. One law extended existing enlistments for the duration of the war. Another required military service for all men between the ages with 18 and 35. The age limit was raised to 45 after the heavy casualties at Antietam.
Exempts from Military Draft in the South
It exempted one white man for each twenty slaves and draftees could hire substitutes to take their place. Became "a rich man's war and a poor man's fight."
Habeas Corpus (South)
State judges issued writs of Habeas Corpus - a legal instrument used to protect people from arbitrary arrest - and ordered the Confederate army to release reluctant draftees. Congress overrode the judges' authority to free conscripted men.
Habeas Corpus (North)
Lincoln suspended Habeas Corpus and over the course of the war imprisoned about fifteen thousand people without trial. This was to prevent sabotage and resistance by Confederate sympathizers.
Martial law in the North
Lincoln extended martial law to civilians who discouraged enlistments or resisted the draft, putting them under the jurisdiction of military courts rather than local juries.
Militia Act of 1862 (North)
Set local recruitment quotas. States and towns enticed volunteers with cash bounties and signed up nearly a million men.
Enrollment Act of 1863 (North)
Initiated conscription in the North. Strongly opposed by immigrants from Germany and Ireland, who protested that it was not their war.
How did Northern Democrats bolster political support for their party?
They used the furor over conscription to gain support. They accused Lincoln of drafting poor whites to win freedom for blacks, who would flood into the cities and take the whites' jobs.
Immigrant Insurrection (July 1863)
Immigrants' hostility to the draft and to African Americans brought violence to the streets of New York. Lincoln responded by rushing in Union troops who had just fought at Gettysburg.
United States Sanitary Commission
Established by prominent New Yorkers in 1861. The organization collected resources and aid for the Union Army Medical Bureau through its networks.
Founded American Red Cross.
Confederate leaders counted on King Cotton to provide revenue to purchase clothes, boots, blankets, and weapons from abroad. They also counted on cotton as a diplomatic weapon that could persuade Britain or France to grant the Confederacy diplomatic recognition.
Britain's view on the Confederacy
It granted the rebel government the status of a belligerent power - with the right under international law to borrow money and purchase weapons.
Economic policies in the North to mobilize resources
Republicans raised the tariffs to win the support of northeastern manufacturers and workers. Thousands of local banks were forced to accept federal charters and regulations. Subsidies were granted to companies to finance internal improvements (Henry Clay's program).
Homestead Act of 1862
Gave heads of families the title to 160 acres of land after five years of residence.
Economic policies in the South
The southern government built and operated shipyards, armories, foundries, and textile mills. They also requistioned slaves to work on fortifications.
Raising money in the North
1. The government increased tariffs on consumer goods, placed high excise duties on alcohol and tobacco, and imposed direct taxes on business corporations, large inheritances, and incomes.
2. Sale of treasury bonds.
3. National Banking Acts
National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864
Forced banks to purchase treasury bonds.
Legal Tender Act of 1862
Authorized the issue of $150 million in treasury notes. These notes became known as greenbacks. They were required to be accepted as legal tender. These treasury notes were not backed by specie.
Raising money in the South
Lacked central government that could tax and borrow. The Confederacy began to print money and the flood of currency created a spectacular inflation. The Confederacy could only sustain the war effort by seizing the property of its citizens.
Confiscation Act of 1861
Authorized the seizure of all properties, including slaves, used to support the revolution.
Second Confiscation Act
Overrode the property rights of Confederate slave owners by declaring freedom for fugitive slaves and all slaves captured by the Confederate army.
September 22, 1862. Declared that slavery would be legally abolished in all states that remained out of the Union on January 1, 1863.
Election of 1864
Lincoln and his allies took the new name, the National Union Party, and selected Andrew Johnson, a Tennessee slave owner and Unionist Democrat, as their candidate for vice president. Lincoln won.
January 31, 1865
Congress approved the 13th amendment, which prohibited slavery throughout the United States.
Special Field Order No. 15
Issued by Sherman. At aside 400,000 acres of prime rice growing land for the exclusive use of freed men.
April 9, 1865
General Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.
Key to Lincoln's military strategy in preserving the Union and defeating the Confederacy. Slavery was not abolished in the border states in hopes of preserving them. Kentucky, a border state, was essential to the movement of troops and supplies. Maryland was vital to the nation's security because it bordered the capital.
Southern advantages in war
1. They don't have to fight an offensive war.
2. The South has harbored experienced generals.
Union strategy in war
Anaconda plan. Winfield Scott, leader of the military, wanted to engulf the Confederacy with the Navy and blockade to prevent all supplies from being delivered to the South. Wanted to divide the Confederacy into two by taking control of the Mississippi River.
First Battle of Bull Run or First Battle of Manassas (1861)
General Irvin McDowell placed in charge of Union Army. Marches from Washington DC to Maryland and encounters southern forces at Manassas Junction. Confederate forces push Union troops to retreat. Confederate victory.
General George McLellan
Replaced General Irvin McDowell after the First Battle of Bull Run. No fighting till March of 1862. Defeated.
General John Pope
Replaced General George McLellan. Replaced by General McLellan after Second Battle of Bull Run.
Second Battle of Bull Run
Confederate forces defeat General John Pope.
September 17, 1862. Robert E. Lee attacks United States soil to convince Britain to join the Confederacy. General McLellan pursues Lee. Both sides retreated but Lincoln called it a Union victory. 22,000 men died. Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation.
Battle of Fredericksburg
General Burnside leads the Union Army. He attacks the main positions of the Confederates recklessly. 12,000 Union troops killed, light damage for Confederacy. Confederacy wins the battle.
Monitor vs. Merrimac
Emergence of ironclad ships.
Lincoln instituted martial law in some cases to restore order and prevent pro Confederate activities. Suspended Habeas Corpus to arrest pro Confederates, imprisonment without trial.
Slaves that had been seized by the Union Army.
Women during the Civil War
Women's responsibilities at home were greatly increased. Stepped into to fill in for men who vacated their normal occupations. Many served as nurses in the Civil War.
Group of anti war northerners who wanted an immediate end to the war. Sought to remove Lincoln from power.
Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863)
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. General Robert E. Lee led a second assault on United States soil. Turning point in war because the Confederacy did not win any battles after Gettysburg. Lee abandons plan to fight offensive war.
Battle of Vicksburg
Vicksburg, Mississippi. Union Army gains control of the Mississippi River. The Confederacy is split into two. Ulysses S. Grant is put in charge of the Union Army.
Path of destruction from Tennessee to Georgia then North to South Carolina. Set everything ablaze in their path. Designed to break the Confederates will to fight and give up.
Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant. Union victory in the Civil War.
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