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Unit 2: What do we do?
Terms in this set (71)
all the living and nonliving things that surround and affect an organism
The study of the natural processes that occur in the environment and how humans can affect them.
A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life support systems for us and other species.
Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
Renewable natural resources
natural resources that are replenished over short periods
Nonrenewable natural resources
a resource that is formed much more slowly than it is used
able to meet the current demand for a resource without depleting the future supply
Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals.
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s
the impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources.
Tragedy of the Commons
the tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain
organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world
the available body of facts or informationused to determine whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.
the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain
A testable idea that attempts to explain a phenomenon or answer a scientific question.
A specific statement, generally arising from a hypothesis, that can be tested directly and unequivocally.
an activity designed to test the validity of a prediction or hypothesis
a variable the scientist manipulates
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
A measure of the relationship between two variables
All those things that must be kept the same during the investigation to produce a valid, fair test.
a study in which only one factor is manipulated, or changed
A process by which the procedures and results of an experiment are evaluated by other scientists who are in the same field or who are conducting similar research.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
A broad explanation of natural events that is supported by strong evidence.
the principles of right and wrong that guide an individual in making decisions
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
A person's view of the world, consisting of the set of beliefs on which they base their life.
the application of ethical standards to relationships between humans and their environment
A human-centered view of our relationship with the environment.
The belief that all creatures have rights and values; being centered on nature rather than humans.
belief that whole ecological systems have value
the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
the study of how resources are converted into products and services and of how those products and services are distributed and used
an economy in which the government decides how economic resources will be allocated
Free market economy
individuals decide what is made, how it is made, and how much is made
An economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion.
The amount of goods available
the desire to own something and the ability to pay for it
a study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good
the field of economics that recognizes the relationships between ecosystems and economic systems
Basically ecological economics with an environmentalist viewpoint.
values not usually included in the price of goods or services
a situation in which a market left on its own fails to allocate resources efficiently
a labeling system that tells consumers which brands are made with processes that do not harm the environment
a formal set of general plans and principles to address problems and guide decision making
a general plan and principle related to the interactions between humans and the environment
the branch of government that makes the laws
the branch of government that carries out laws (examples - EPA, Forest Service, etc.)
Interprets the laws
The First Period (1780s to late-1800s)
Few environmental policies. The ones that existed encouraged resource use. Ideas that resources were endless.
The Second Period (late 1800s-mid 1900s)
Policies sought to reduce environmental problems associated with westward expansion. Led to the formation of national forest system and national park system.
The Third Period (Mid- to late- 1900s)
Lots of pollution, resource consumption, and environmental destruction. Many of our environmental policies were created.
Modern US Environmental Policy
requires that environmental impacts be evaluated before federal action is taken.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
A 1969 U.S. federal act that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
A document outlining the scope and purpose of a development project, describing the environmental context, suggesting alternative approaches to the project, and analyzing the environmental impact of each alternative.
Environmental Protection Agency
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
International Environmental Policy
Interaction between domestic and foreign environmental forces or between sets of foreign environmental forces
Issues that go beyond the borders of one region, state, or country.
The United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
The World Trade Organization
Administers the rules governing trade between its 144 members. Helps producers, importers, and exporters conduct their business and ensure that trade flows smoothly.
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation.
international organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social economic and environmental issues
a strategy for pollution control that involves regulations and enforcement mechanisms
government payment to encourage or protect a certain economic activity
taxes on environmentally harmful activities
a method for managing pollution in which a limit is placed on emissions and businesses or countries can buy and sell emissions allowances
Engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.
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