the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
Continental Drift Theory
the theory that the continents have not always been in their present locations but have moved there over millions of years
a balance between and interplay of opposing elements or tendencies (especially in art or literature)
a gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
are the slowest and largest of the seismic waves and cause most of the destruction during an earthquake. A type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface
1st wave, P, travels the fastest, back-and-forth waves, move through solids, liquids, and gases. Waves that travel outward from an Earthquake's focus and cause particles in rocks to move back and forth in the same direction the wave is moving
(geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)
a logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 used to express the energy released by an earthquake using seismic waves
Cinder Cone Volcano
a steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano's opening
a tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials. Volcano built by alternating explosive and quiet eruptions that produce layers of tephra and lava
A volcano that has not erupted for thousands of years and probably will not erupt again.
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
produced by fire, great heat, or the action of a volcano; solidified from a molten state. Igneous rock is formed by the cooling and solidification of magma.
Elements that make up the Atmosphere
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Helium, Argon, and traces of Kyrpton and Xenon
2nd layer of atmosphere. upper and lower. upper is warmer becuase it contains the ozone layer.
the uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves
a type of energy that comes to Earth from the Sun, can damage skin and cause cancer, and is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
Open Ocean Zone
the area that includes most deep ocean waters; most organisms live near the surface. Beyond the edge of the continental shelf
the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water
a localized and violently destructive windstorm occurring over land characterized by a funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground
a small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightning
the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid
Theory of Relativity
einsteins theory that time is different depending on how fast you travel or how massive of object that you are on
the splitting of atoms which releases tremendous amounts of energy and is used to start the chain reaction of an atomic explosion
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.
a galaxy with a bulge in the middle and arms that spiral outward in a pinwheel pattern
A galaxy shaped like a round or flattened ball, generally containing only old stars.