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Science Exam Index Cards

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Pangaea
the name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents
Continental Drift Theory
the theory that the continents have not always been in their present locations but have moved there over millions of years
Crust
the outer layer of the Earth
Mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
Inner Core
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the earth
Outer Core
a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
Geologist
a scientist who studies the forces that make and shape planet earth
Compression
stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Shearing
stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions
Tension
a balance between and interplay of opposing elements or tendencies (especially in art or literature)
Trench
a long steep-sided depression in the ocean floor
Continental Shelf
a gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent
Continental Slope
a steep incline leading down from the edge of the continental shelf
Mid-Ocean Ridge
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
Surface Waves
are the slowest and largest of the seismic waves and cause most of the destruction during an earthquake. A type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach Earth's surface
Primary Waves
1st wave, P, travels the fastest, back-and-forth waves, move through solids, liquids, and gases. Waves that travel outward from an Earthquake's focus and cause particles in rocks to move back and forth in the same direction the wave is moving
Secondary Waves
These waves are slow, and they are near the surface
Tsunami
a giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor
Fault
(geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
Seismograph
a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)
Richter Scale
a logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 used to express the energy released by an earthquake using seismic waves
Cinder Cone Volcano
a steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano's opening
Shield Volcano
a wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions
Dome Volcano
a volcano with steep sides that is formed by lava flows and has massive eruptions
Composite Volcano
a tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials. Volcano built by alternating explosive and quiet eruptions that produce layers of tephra and lava
Extinct Volcano
A volcano that has not erupted for thousands of years and probably will not erupt again.
Active Volcano
a volcano that is erupting or has shown signs that it may erupt in the near future
Dormant Volcano
A volcano that has not erupted for a long time, but may erupt again one day.
Color
the shade of color the rock is
Luster
the way a mineral reflects light from its surface
Streak
the color of a mineral's powder
Cleavage
a mineral's ability to split easily along flat surfaces
Fracture
the manner in which a mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces
Mohs Scale
a scale of hardness of solids
Sedimentary Rock
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
Metamorphic Rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
Igneous Rock
produced by fire, great heat, or the action of a volcano; solidified from a molten state. Igneous rock is formed by the cooling and solidification of magma.
Erosion
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
Elements that make up the Atmosphere
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Helium, Argon, and traces of Kyrpton and Xenon
Troposphere
the layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs; the thinnest layer
Mesoshpere
Layer in the atmosphere above the stratopause, Temperature decreases
Stratoshpere
2nd layer of atmosphere. upper and lower. upper is warmer becuase it contains the ozone layer.
Thermosphere
the uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
Radiation
The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
Conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
Convection
the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas
Infrared Radiation
electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light but shorter than radio waves
Ultraviolet Radiation
a type of energy that comes to Earth from the Sun, can damage skin and cause cancer, and is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer
Greenhouse Effect
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
Intertidal Zone
portion of the shoreline that lies between the high and low tide lines
Neretic Zone
Coral reef, seaweed, extends from low tide to the edge of the open sea.
Open Ocean Zone
the area that includes most deep ocean waters; most organisms live near the surface. Beyond the edge of the continental shelf
Nekton
all organisms that swim actively in open water, independent of currents
Plankton
the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water
Benthos
organisms (plants and animals) that live at or near the bottom of a sea
Guyots
flat topped underwater animals
Seamounts
underwater volcanoes
Tornado
a localized and violently destructive windstorm occurring over land characterized by a funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground
Hurricane
tropical storm with violent wind and heavy rain
Blizzard
a storm with widespread snowfall accompanied by strong winds
Thunderstorm
a small storm often accompanied by heavy precipitation and frequent thunder and lightning
Cumulus Clouds
puffy white clouds that tend to have flat bottoms
Stratus Clouds
look like flat blankets and are usually the lowest clouds in the sky
Cirrus Clouds
thin, white, wispy clouds with a feathery appearance
Barometer
an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
Wind Vane
instrument used to measure wind direction
Rain Gauge
instrument used to measure rainfall
Anemometer
an instrument used to measure wind speed
Thermometer
meaures the outisde temperature
Condensation
the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state
Water Cycle
the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid
Theory of Relativity
einsteins theory that time is different depending on how fast you travel or how massive of object that you are on
Fusion
the union of atoms
Fission
the splitting of atoms which releases tremendous amounts of energy and is used to start the chain reaction of an atomic explosion
Compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
Mixture
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
Solution
a mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another
Molecules
groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
Atoms
the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element; consists of three main types of subatomic particles: protons neutrons and electrons.
Electrons
negatively charged particles
Protons
Positively charged particles
Neutrons
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
Sun Size
diameter= 1.4 million km
Sun Color
red orange and yellow
Prominences
reddish loops of gas that link different parts of sunspot regions
Solar Flares
storm on the sun that shows up as a bright burst of light on the sun's surface
Galaxies
a massive grouping of stars, gas and dusts in space
Spiral Galaxy
a galaxy with a bulge in the middle and arms that spiral outward in a pinwheel pattern
Elliptical Galaxy
A galaxy shaped like a round or flattened ball, generally containing only old stars.
Irregular Galaxy
a galaxy that does not have a regular shape
Geothermal Energy
the energy produced by heat within the Earth
Solar Energy
Energy from the sun
Hydroelectricity
electricity produced by water power
Biomass
plant materials and animal waste used as fuel