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Psych/Soc Diagnostic 1A

Terms in this set (20)

D. Based on the description provided, feminist theories are interested in societal differences between men and women. Theorists of this perspective attempt to explain these differences through an understanding of gender differences, gender inequalities, gender oppression, and structural oppression. Feminist theories, similar to conflict theories, are focused on structured social inequalities (choice D is correct). Conflict theories are interested in social, political, and material inequalities. This is often focused on inequalities as a result of socioeconomic differences, as the founding theorist, Karl Marx, was invested in studies of economics; however, modern conflict theorists are also interested in inequalities based on race and gender. Structural functionalist theories are interested in the contributions of individual social structures, each with a distinct purpose, to the function of the whole society (choice A is wrong). While a functionalist approach could be used to understand the social structures contributing to gender inequalities (e.g., forms of structural oppression), this is not relevant to the information stressed in the question stem. Social constructionist theories are interested in the construction of perceived social realities through social interactions (choice B is wrong). Finally, symbolic interactionist theories are interested in the relationship between individuals and greater social structures, with a focus on communication (choice C is wrong). Again, constructionist and/or interactionist approaches could be used to understand the social processes contributing to gender inequalities, but this is not relevant here.
A. Socialization is a term used to describe the lifelong process of inheriting and disseminating the norms, values, customs, ideologies, and behaviors of one's society, providing an individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating effectively with others within his or her own society. In other words, socialization is the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained; individuals are socialized through normal, everyday interactions with others (choice A is correct). Indoctrination, on the other hand, involves the teaching of a specific doctrine or ideology to an individual who is not supposed to question this point of view; while indoctrination is closely linked to socialization, it is often associated with negative connotations (as a coercive form of learning), while socialization refers to a more natural and unforced process of cultural learning (choice B is wrong). Social facilitation occurs when an individual is able to perform a simple task or skill somehow better in front of others than when alone; this term does not describe the process by which an individual acquires the norms, values, customs, ideologies, and behaviors of his or her society (choice C is wrong). Social learning is the process of learning vicariously through observation of a model; though social learning is an important element of socialization, social learning itself does not fully describe the process of acquiring the norms, values, customs, ideologies, and behaviors of society (choice D is wrong).
D. It is an unfortunate truth that race is often connected to the social construct of socioeconomic status (SES) as a large proportion of minorities in the United States are also SES disadvantaged. This has important implications for health and health care disparities: minorities often experience worse health and health care outcomes compared to whites, including the increased risk for serious chronic illnesses. Item I is true: Health and health care disparities result from differences in access to health care resources, such as health care facilities, that have more negative consequences for minorities as lower SES individuals (choice B can be eliminated). There are larger proportions of minorities than whites in lower-income geographical areas with less relevant infrastructure as the result of enduring social patterns. This separation of social groups into different neighborhoods, most often due to racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic differences, is sometimes called residential segregation. Item II is true: Health and health care disparities result from differences in access to health insurance that have more negative consequences for minorities as lower SES individuals (choices A and C can be eliminated). The lack of health insurance means that it is more difficult to access regular or preventative health care, meaning that the uninsured often do not access health care until issues have progressed to a much worse stage, contributing to marked disparities. Item III is true: Health and health care disparities result from differences in subjection to dangerous environments, such as pollution, that have more negative consequences for minorities as lower SES individuals. These differences and the subsequent differences in the negative impacts of these exposures are sometimes referred to an example of environmental injustice (choice D is the correct answer).
D. Stereotype threat is a phenomenon whereby the performance of individuals who belong to negatively stereotyped groups is reduced because these individuals experience anxiety in situations in which an individual has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about his or her social group. In other words, if negative stereotypes are present regarding a specific group, group members are likely to become anxious about their performance, which may hinder their ability to perform at their maximum level. Therefore, if a group of African American males is told that a standardized test is meant to measure "intelligence and ability to succeed in college," and then these males perform worse on the test than white males, then this scenario most accurately exemplifies stereotype threat, since there is a negative stereotype that African American males have lower intelligence and are less likely to succeed in college (choice D is correct). Stereotype threat does not apply to positive stereotypes, and does not describe situations where performance is enhanced; therefore, if African American males jump higher than white males after being told that on average African Americans jump higher, this is not an example of stereotype threat (choice A is wrong). Similarly, if a group of Asian American males performs better than white males on a math assessment, even though there is a stereotype that Asians are "good at math," this positive performance is not an example of stereotype threat (choice B is wrong). If a group of Asian American males performs about that same as their white counterparts, even after being told that they should perform worse, then stereotype threat has also not occurred (choice D is wrong).