Developmental Psych Test 3
Terms in this set (61)
A persistent sameness within one's self and a sharing of one's essential character with others
A period of role experimentation and active exploration of possibilities or alternatives
Making a choice among alternatives
Commitment made and crisis experienced
Commitment made and no crises experienced
No commitment made and is experiencing crisis
No commitment made and no crisis experienced
Parenting correlated with Identity Achievement
Correlated with Identity Foreclosure
Correlated with Identity Diffusion
Characteristics of Achievement and Moratorium
Higher self esteem
Feel more in control
View education favorably
More capable of sustaining intimate relationships
Characteristics of Foreclosure Status
Dogmatic,rigid, and defensive
Characteristics of Diffusion Status
Less capable of intimacy
Avoid making personal decisions
Poor academic performance
Poor time management
More likely to abuse drugs and alcohol
A distinct period of development that differs from adolescence and young adulthood.
Takes place between 18-25 years of age and is characterized by independent role exploration and frequent change
1979: Typical 21 Year Old
Married or about to be married
Caring for a child or planning a pregnancy
Done with eduction
Settled into a job or role of full-time mother
Today: Typical 21 Year Old
Marriage and parenthood -not for another 5 years
Education may last more years
Will experience job change
What caused changes from 1970 to now?
Invention of birth control
Sexual revolutions of 60s and 70s
Increase in years devoted to higher education
Change in women's roles
Change in how young people view becoming an adult
Open, supportive, and tender relationship without the fear of losing one's self.
Able to put aside self at times because self is secure
Self-absorption, fear of losing one's self, unwillingness to compromise
What are the top three criteria for achieving adulthood?
1. Accepting responsibility for yourself
2. Making independent decisions
3. Being financially independent
What is a romantic relationship? (3 things)
1. Mutually acknowledged , ongoing interaction
2. Affection, current or anticipated sexual behavior
3. Distinctive intensity (limerence)
Why don't we start dating in preschool?
-Puberty (emergence of sexual feelings)
4 phases of a relationship
Why is dating in adolescence important?
-Development of sexuality
-Sexual and romantic identity development
What are dating in adolescence positive effects on development?
What are dating in adolescence negative effects on development?
Conflict and mood swings
What are the qualities of a good relationship?
Know when it's over
What are the qualities of a bad relationship?
Lack of affection
Examples of non-romantic sexual relationships
-One Night Stands
-Friends with Benefits
-"Sex With an Ex"
Support for hooking up taking over college campuses:
-Majority of college students have hooked up
-Contemporary college students more likely to have casual partner, friend as partner
Support that opposes hooking up taking over college campuses
-The majority of college students have also been in a long term relationship
-Majority of sex during college occurs in romantic relationships
-College students think their peers are hooking up more than they are
Is hooking up bad for college students? What does it depends on?
-On attitude towards hooking up
-On reasons for hooking up
-Internal motivation versus external/peer factors
-On alcohol use
-On outcome of the hookup
Navigating Hookup Culture
Self-Disclosure levels in friendships based on gender....
In heterosexual marriages who is husbands best friend?
Is divorce more emotionally devastating for women or men?
Indentity Status and Intimacy:
Foreclosed: avoid conflict
Diffused: difficulty with commitment, adopt partner's identity, lack depth
Moratorium: still figuring it out!
Achieved: most success
Are males more likely to enter a committed relationship before or after their career plans are made?
Are females more likely to enter a committed relationship before or after their career plans are made?
Who marries younger men or women?
Who initiates divorce more often, women or men?
55% feel close to others, can depend on them
20% not trusting, cling to partner, jealous, overly dependent
25% uncomfortable being close, find intimacy unpleasant, little emotional expression
Average duration of a marriage....
Mate selection filter
3. Social background
7. Married couples
Children who have experienced multiple transitions at home:
-Have more behavior problems in school
-Have sex at an earlier age
-Less likely to graduate from high school
-More likely to have a first child outside of marriage
Moving from one transition into another without really thinking about it.
Myths about marriage: (4)
1. Conflict will ruin your marriage
2. Affairs are the main cause of divorce
3. Men are not biologically made for marriage
4. The best marriages are when couples have the same interests
What helps to make a marriage work?
1. Solving solvable problems
2. Letting your partner influence you
3. Creating a shared meaning of marriage
4. Turn toward each other rather than away
An unhappy marriage...
....increases an individuals risk of getting sick by 30% and can even shorten a person's life by 4 years
Levinson's Developmental Tasks of Adulthood
-Finding positive meaning in being older
-Men tend to focus on health; women tend to focus on health and body
-Becoming more aware of how we have acted in a harmful way toward others and trying to correct it
-Thinking in terms of how much time we have vs. how much time we have spent vs. how much time we have left
-Creation in the sense of helping others, doing good in the world instead of bad
-Often the time we change relationships with siblings
-Become more androgynous
-androgyny children have more resilience
-A shift toward androgyny for both men and women
Men become more nurturing and women become more assertive especially at work
-Resolving issues of work and family
-Men may pull back from career
-Women tend to move toward career
Women report much more trouble in terms of balancing home and work lives
The way parents or parental-figures share leadership by negotiating their respective roles as heads of the family.
Self-disclosure is a process of communication through which one person reveals himself or herself to another. It comprises everything an individual chooses to tell the other person about himself or herself, making him or her known.
Judith Wallerstein's Initial Beliefs
-Divorce was a brief crisis
-Divorce rate would drop
Judith Wallerstein's Sample
-60 families/131 children
-Well-educated, middle to upper class, no prior emotional problems (i.e. no stress other than divorce)
-"Divorce under the best circumstances"
Wallerstein's Study Tools
Interviews and questionnaires