The Odyssey English Final Review (Most of the study guides- Galligan)
Who is the goddess of which Odysseus lives with for seven years?
How long does Odysseus stay with Circe?
Where is Odysseus's first stop on his journey home?
Land of the Cicones
Who are the sea nymphs who sing beautiful songs but are very deadly if you are lured in by their song?
How long does Penelope make the blanket to hold of marrying the suitors?
At Odysseus' house in Ithaca, we are introduced to the suitors. What are they doing in the house?
Playing with dice and sitting on fur from animals they have killed while the servants are serving them
How does Athena present herself to Telemachus?
She first presents herself as Mentes, then as Mentor
What sign does Zeus send to the assembly, and what is its meaning TOWARDS THE END OF THE BOOK?
2 eagles, Halitherses interprets their struggle as a portent of Odysseus's imminent return and warns the suitors that they will face a massacre if they don't leave.
What is the purpose of the first ten lines of the poem?
Homer is asking the muse, goddess of poetry, to inspire him and help him tell a good story
What is the purpose of the first ten lines of the poem?
The purpose of the first ten lines is to introduce what has happened since the book is starting in the middle of the story and Homer is asking Muse to help him with the story
Why has Odysseus not returned from the Trojan War?
Odysseus has not returned from the Trojan War because Poseidon holds a grudge against Odysseus and is trying to keep Odysseus from making it back home to his wife and kingdom.
What does Athena do during the meeting on Mount Olympus at the beginning of the book?
Athena convinces Zeus and the gods to let Odysseus go home. She says that her heart is breaking for him (who has been gone for so long and is stuck on the island of Calypso) and Zeus says that he has not forgotten Odysseus.
What are the suitors doing at Odysseus' home in Ithaca?
They are leeching off of Odysseus's household and making themselves at home. They are also trying to convince Penelope, Odysseus's wife to marry one of them.
What words are used to describe the suitors?
"Swaggering," "lounging," and they "trooped in with all their swagger" are words that are used to describe the suitors.
How does Athena present herself to Telemachus?
As both Mentes and Mentor
What piece of information does Athena give to Telemachus about his father?
She says that Odysseus is alive and she tells Telemachus who to go to Pylos and Sparta find information about where he could be.
Athena tells Telemachus to seek information about his father from which men?
She tells Telemachus to go to King Nestor and Menelaus.
Why does Telemachus call the men to assemble towards the beginning of the book?
Telemachus tells the suitors and men that they should be ashamed of themselves. He also tells them that they should go, and that he is leaving
How has Penelope managed to hold off the suitors' demands for the past four years?
She said that she would not make a decision until she had woven her shroud. Each night, she unwove many of the stitches that she had woven that day.
What sign does Zeus send to the assembly (in the beginning of the book when telemachus assembles the suitors)? What does it mean?
He sends two eagles down that are fighting and tearing at each other. This means that this will happen to the suitors and one of the men says that Odysseus must not be far off.
What does Telemachus plan to do after he assembles the suitors?
He plans to go to Pylos to see King Nestor and find news of his father.
Who is Neleus?
Where did telemachus journey to first?
What is an epithet?
Words that describe a person
What is Nestor's epithet?
Breaker of horses
Why is Telemachus hesitant to speak to King Nestor?
Telemachus is so much younger
What is the name of Nestor's son who is important? he travels with telemachus
What must Athena and Telemachus do before they ask the king any questions?
They must sacrifice to Poseidon.
How does Nestor know Odysseus?
They fought together in Troy. They were good friends. They fought 9 years together.
Does Nestor know anything of Odysseus' fate? Why/why not?
No, because Nestor went back on Menelaus's ship and Odysseus ended up on Agamemnon's ship (he was going to go with Menelaus but then his ship got blow back). Agamemnon and Menelaus are brothers and they fought each other. Agamemnon wanted to stay and offer sacrifice to the gods and Menelaus didn't.
How is Telemachus' life with the suitors similar to Orestes' life? (Look on pages 113-114)
Aegestheis succeeds in taking Clytemnestra. Orestes is Agamemnon's son and Orestes kills Aegestheis. Telemachus WANTS to kill the suitors.
What is Nestor's warning to Telemachus on page 117?
He says don't stay away from home too long because people will take his wealth and his journey will not come to anything when they return.
Give at least two examples of hospitality from when Telemachus joins Nestor
Page 118- Nestor forbids that the guests stay on their ship. He says they must stay in his home. Pg 108- as soon as the guests offer sacrifices they can join in the feast
What happens when Athena leaves Nestor's palace?
She turns into a winged eagle and everyone realizes she is a goddess. Nestor also says that Telemachus is lucky the gods are guarding him.
Who accompanies Telemachus to Sparta?
When Telemachus and his companion arrive at Menalaus' palace, what is occurring?
A double wedding between two of Menelaus' children and the son of Achilles and the daughter of Alector from Sparta
To whom is Menelaus married?
Who meets Telemachus and psistratus passing through the gates in book 4 in sparta?
On page 126 when Telemachus reached Menelaus' court, why is Telemachus "struck with wonder"? (4.84)
Menelaus's court is wealthy and beautiful and amazing.
Who is Menelaus' brother?
For whom does Menelaus grieve the most out of all of his comrades?
Who is the first to recognize Telemachus in Sparta?
Why does Helen drug everyone?
So that they would forget their pains
What story does Helen tell about clever Odysseus?
Helen tells the story about how Odysseus penetrates Troy disguised as a beggar.
What does Menelaus predict for the suitors upon Odysseus' return?
He predicts that Odysseus will kill all of the suitors.
Why did Menelaus have to find Proteus?
Proteus would tell Menelaus how to get home.
What does Proteus tell Menelaus to do?
Proteus tells Menelaus to sail back through Egyptian waters and make a rite to the gods. Then the gods would allow Menelaus a safe journey home.
Proteus tells Menelaus that he has seen Odysseus where?
On Ogygia with the nymph Calypso
Back at Odysseus' palace while Telemachus is in Sparta, do the suitors know that Telemachus has left?
They just found out
When the suitors find out Telemachus left, what do they plan to do?
They plan to go and hide out and ambush him between Ithaca and Same.
Who tells Penelope of the plan to ambush Telemachus?
The herald Medon.
How does the reader know that Telemachus will survive the ambush by the suitors?
Athena disguises herself as Penelope's sister and comes to Penelope in her sleep to tell her that Telemachus will come home (and Athena tells Telemachus)
Odysseus is insulted by Broadsea. What does Broadsea accuse Odysseus of being? Why?
Broadsea accused Odysseus of traveling to kingdoms and leeching off of the people there.
With Athena's help, what athletic feat does Odysseus accomplish (at the Phaeacians)?
Odysseus throws the discus further by far than anyone else.
Odysseus brags that he is an accomplished athlete but allows one test where the Phaeacians would likely win. To which test does he refer? Why?
The running because Odysseus's body is all messed up after being thrown around in the sea.
Why do you think Homer interrupts the narrative to have Demodocus sing about the love of Ares and Aphrodite?
Odysseus has been unfaithful with Calypso. Hephaestus mirrors Odysseus because in the end they both win. Penelope could mirror Aphrodite because she is stuck at home while Odysseus is gone.
What is the ancient legend/tale to which King Alicinous refers that will bring doom to the Phaeacians?
The legend is that (pg 209) if King Alcinous helps this one guy then their ship will be crushed and something bad will happen.
Which encounter do Odysseus and his men have before Polyphemus?
Ismarus and the Lotus Eaters
Why is it necessary for Odysseus to take some of his men by force away from the land of the Lotus-Eaters?
To keep them from eating the flowers and losing their desires
What kind of creature does Odysseus encounter in the land after Ismarus and Lotus-Eaters?
Why does Odysseus lead his men into Polyphemus' cave?
Because he is expecting the Cyclops to give him a guest gift
What happens when Polyphemus finds Odysseus and his men in the cave?
He is unhappy, but wants to eat them
How does Odysseus wound Polyphemus?
Got him drunk and when he Polyphemus passed out they drove a hot stake into his eye
How do Odysseus and his remaining men escape from Polyphemus' cave?
They attach themselves to Polyphemus' sheep which Polyphemus runs out of his cave each morning
How is the craftiness and cunning of Odysseus revealed in his escape from Polyphemus?
He and his men ride out on Polyphemus' sheep, he tells Polythemus that his name is nobody, said that his ship crashed, used the wine to get the Cyclops so that Odysseus could hurt him, didn't kill the Cyclops so he would move the boulder
Why does Odysseus reveal his name to Polyphemus after the escape?
To get the glory and pride of being the blinder of the Cyclops Odysseus has Hubris (too much pride)
Why do Odysseus and his men return to Aeaea after going to the underworld?
To bury Elpenor
How do the sirens destroy men?
Their songs lure them overboard.
What warning does Circe give about surviving the Sirens?
Put wax in the men's ears.
What is the name of the Sungod's island?
Island of the sun
Who repeats the prophecy that Tiresias gives to Odysseus?
How many men get snatched up by Scylla?
Who contests the orders to row past the Island of the Sun?
Why do the men eventually begin to disregard Odysseus' warning not to eat Helios' cattle?
They are starving and think they will never make it back home to Ithaca.
Who tells Helios that Odysseus' men harmed his cattle?
What happens to Odysseus' companions on his ship?
What happens to Odysseus after his men die?
He got washed up on ogygia, calypsos island?
The beginning of Book 13 signifies the end of what?
Which chapters were part of Odysseus' flashback?
Who commands the ship on Odysseus' way back to Ithaca? Why is Odysseus asleep?
The phaecians. He is tired.
Explain the conversation between Poseidon and Zeus.
Zeus tells Poseidon to pay the Phaeacians back
What is the name of the Phaeacian Island? (The other name besides Phaeacia)
Why does Odysseus doubt the honesty of the Phaeacians when he arrives in Ithaca?
He thinks he is not in Ithaca and he doesn't see anyone.
How long have the suitors been at Odysseus' house?
4 years (Penelope has been weaving the shroud for 3)
Whom must Odysseus see first after returning to Ithaca? Who DOES HE SEE FIRST THOUGH?
Eumaus; argos the dog
where does Athena go after she meets Odysseus at Ithaca?
To Telemachus in Sparta
Telemachus tells Eurycleia to close the women up in their rooms so that he can do what?
store his father's weapons in the storeroom.
Who is Melantho?
A mean maid.
Who is Eurynome?
The nice housekeeper who waits on Penelope and dressed her up earlier in the book to make the suitors jealous of her beauty.
Who is Autolycus?
Odysseus' grandfather; the man who named Odysseus "son of pain" and at his palace Odysseus received the distinguishing scar by the tusk of a boar
Who is Amphithea?
How does Eurycleia discover Odysseus' identity? How does Odysseus make her keep quiet?
She sees the scar on Odysseus' leg when she is bathing him. Odysseus makes her promise to keep quiet under the threat of death.
What contest does Penelope devise to test the suitors?
She devises a contest where the suitors will have to string Odysseus' great bow then shoot an arrow through the small hole in twelve axes.
Describe the maids in Book 20 (and the omens)
When the maids' begin talking, 12 maids are up and the frailest of all maids speaks an omen for Odysseus, the other maids begin to clean everywhere.
Give an example of Odysseus' self-control with Ctesippus
Odysseus restrained himself from attacking Ctesippus when Ctesippus threw an oxhoof at him.
Whom does Penelope pray to in this chapter in chapter 20? Why?
Artemis; for death
When does Eurycleia enter Chapter 20?
When Telemachus asks how the "stranger" is being treated
What does Eurycleia do RIGHT AFTER the slaughter?
She tells the maids to clean the house.
What is the goatherd's name?
What is the cowherd's name?
How do the greetings of the cowherd and the goatherd differ?
The goatherd comments on how Odysseus is "riffraff" and he is surprised that he is hanging around. He tells Odyseeus to leave and stop bothering his betters. The cowherd asks Eumaus who Odysseus is and said he has a build like a king, and he greets Odysseus kindly.
Give an example of Telemachus acting boldly after his travels.
He says "no insults now, no brawling, no, or it's war between us all." He is telling that to sit down or fight with him. (Odysseus is there in disguise as a beggar)
Who is Ctesippus?
A lawless boor who was impressed with his own wealth and so he courted Penelope; he threw an oxhoof at Odysseus.
Who is Theoclymenus?
A fugitive coming back to Ithaca with Telemachuis; a prophet.
What is Theoclymenus' final warning?
That disaster is coming for all of the suitors and NO ONE can escape it.
How does Telemachus practice self-control with Ctesippus towards the end of the book?
He restrains Ctesippus and tells him off, but in a good manner.
Who gave Odysseus the bow originally? During the attack on the suitors?
Who, other than Odysseus, had the power and strength to string the bow?
Telemachus (and Eurytus, Iputhus' father)
To what men does Odysseus reveal his identity towards the end? (Include name and job)
Cowherd— Philoetius, Swineherd— Eumaeus
What is Odysseus' plan on how to deal with the suitors?
Odysseus plan is for Eumaeus to give the bow to Odysseus and tell the maids to lock the doors then go to their rooms, and Philoetius is to lock the outer gate. They will then fight the suitors.
What does Eurycleia have to do right before the slaughter?
Lock the doors to to maids' rooms and keep everyone in there no matter what they hear.
What does Telemachus tell Penelope to do right before the slaughter?
Go to her own quarters, tend to her women and keep them working hard.
How does Odysseus reveal his true identity?
"You never imagined I would return from Troy—so cocksure that you bled my house to death..."
Why can't the suitors fight back (at first) in the end of the book?
They do not have weapons.
Who of the suitors dies first?
What does Eurymachus ask of Odysseus pertaining to all of the suitors when Odysseus wants to kill them?
To let them go and he says that Antinous was the one that drove them to crime. He says that they will recoup the costs.
How does Antinous die
Odysseus shoots him first
How does Eurymachus die
O shoots him
How does Amphinomus die
Telemachus stabs him
How does Melanthius die
gets weapons for the suitors, he is hanged by Eumaeus and Philoetius, and then his nose, ears, hands, and feet are cut off and his genitals tore out for the dogs to eat.
Which men does Odysseus spare from the slaughter at the end of the book? (include name and job)
Phemius, the bard; Medon, the herald
What happens to the disloyal serving women at the end of the book?