-the ovarian ligament -suspensory ligament (connects ovary to the pelvic wall)
Oogenisis has the following steps
1. formation of primary ovarian follicles 2. formation of secondary ovarian follicles 3. formation of tertiary ovarian follicle 4. ovulation 5. formation of the corpus luteum 6. formation of the corpus albicans (degeneration of the corpus luteum)
the decline in progesterone and estrogen triggers the secretion of GnRH, which in turn triggers a rise in:
-FSH & LH production, and then the entire cycle begins again.
Each uterine tube has
-an infundibulum (expanded funnel) -an ampulla -an isthmus -uterine part (intramural part that opens into uterine cavity)
For fertilization to occur, the ovum must encounter spermatozoa during the first
12-24 hours of its passage from the infundibulum to the uterus
The uterus provides
mechanical projection and nutritional support to the developing embryo
normally the uterus bends anteriorly near its base (anteflexion). It is stabilized by broad ligaments:
a typical 28 day uterine cycle (menstrual cycle) begins with:
-the onset of menses and the destruction of the functional zone of the endometrium *this process of menstruation continues from 1-7 days
after menses, The proliferative phase begins & the functional zone:
undergoes repair and thickens *menstrual activity begins at menarche (first uterine cycle) and continues until menopause.
The vagina is
-an elastic, muscular tube extending between the uterus and external genitalia. -it serves as a passage way for menstrual fluid, receives the penis during sexual intercouse, and forms the lower portion of the birth canal.
The hymen is
-a thin epithelial fold -partially blocks the vagina entrance.
The structures of the vulva (pudendum) include
vestibule, labia minora, clitoris, prepuce (hood), and labia majora.
The lesser and greater vestibular glands
keep the area moistened in and around the vestibule.
The fatty mons pubis
creates the outer limit of the vulva (labia majora)
The mammary glands lie
in the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin of the chest and are the site of milk production or lactation.
Milk production is stimulated by
a combination of hormones: -prolactin (PRL) -growth hormone (GH) -human placental lactogen (HPL)
The ducts of the underlying mammary glands open
onto the body surface of a nipple
The placenta (special embryonic organ) that develops functions as
a temporary endocrine organ, producing several important hormones and facilitate gas and nutrient exchange
-typically occurs around the age 50 -is it the time when ovulation and mestruation cease & also is is due to shortage of primordial follicles)
-occurs before age 40 -production of GnRh, FSH, and LH rise, while circulating concentrations of estrogen and progestrins decline
The male climacteric (comparable to menopause) occurs
-between age 50-60 -involves in the decline in circulating testosterone levels and rise in FSH and LH levels
the human reproductive system produces, stores, nourishes, and transports...
-functional gametes -is haploid reproductive cells that have 1/2 the normal number of chromosomes.
-reproductive organs -produce gametes & hormones
the testes hang within the scrotum and each measure:
-about 2 inches long and 1 inch in diameter -the compartments within the testes are lobules.
the SEPTA extends from the tunica albuginea to the mediastinum, creating a series of
Oogenesis (ovum production)
occurs monthly in ovarian follicles as part of the ovarian cycle
menstrual activity begins at ______ and continues until _________
menstrual activity begins at MENARCHE (first uterine cycle) and continues until MENOPAUSE
three stages of the uterine cycle (menstrual cycle)
1. menses 2. proliferative phase 3. secretory phase