Unit 8: Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
Terms in this set (38)
right to trial by jury if case involves more than twenty dollars
A constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
the constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
equal employment opportunity commission (EEOC)
the agency that enforces the federal law prohibiting job discrimination
alien and sedition laws
acts passed in 1798 authorizing the president to deport undesirable aliens and making it a crime to criticize the government or its officials
civil rights act of 1957
the first civil rights law passed by congress since reconstruction, designed to secure the right to vote for blacks
civil rights act of 1960
a law designed to further secure the right to vote for blacks and to meet problems arising from racial upheavals in the south
civil rights act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
civil rights act of 1968
this law banned discrimination in housing, the segregation of education, transportation, and employment, it helped African Americans gain their full voting rights.
bill of attainder
a legislative act that declares the guilt of an individual and metes out punishment without a judicial trial
bill of rights
the first ten amendments to the united states constitution. it contains a listing of the rights a person enjoys that cannot be infringed upon by the government
the curbing of ideas either in speech or in writing before they are expressed
refusal to obey a law, usually on the ground that the law is morally reprehension.
those liberties usually spelled out in a bill of rights or a constitution that guarantee the protection of persons, opinions, and property from the arbitrary interference of government officials.
positive acts of government designed to protect persons against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government or individuals.
de facto segregation
the existence of racially segregated facilities that are,however,not required by law.
the guarantee in the fifth amendment to the constitution that one may not be twice put in jeopardy of life or for the same offense.
due process of law
protection against arbitrary deprivation of life, liberty, or property.
the power inherent in all government to take over private property, provided that it is taken for a public purpose and that just compensation is awarded.
equal protection of the law
a requirement of the fourteenth amendment that state laws may not arbitrarily discriminate against persons
a term used to describe the movement to equalize the right of men and women
ex post facto law
a criminal law that is retroactive and that has an adverse effect upon one accused of a crime
fair employment practices laws
laws that forbid private and/or public employers, labor unions, and employment agencies to discriminate in hiring or in other personnel policies on the grounds of race, color, creed, or national origin
a part of the bill of rights that imposes a number of restrictions on the national government with respect to the rights of persons accused of crime
a post-civil war amendment (1868) that defines citizenship, restricts the powers of the states in their relations with their inhabitants, requires reduction of a state's representation in congress for denials of suffrage, disqualifies former officeholders who participated in the rebellion, and invalidates any war debts of rebellious states
freedom of assembly
the right of the people to congregate for the discussion of public questions and to organize into political parties or pressure groups for the purpose of influencing public policy
freedom of association
the right to organize for political,religious, or other social purposes
freedom of the press
the right to publish and disseminate information without prior restraint, subject to penalties for abuse of the right
freedom of religion
freedom of worship and religious practice
freedom of speech
the right to speak without prior restraint, subject to penalties for abuse of the right
a court order directing an official who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner to court and to show cause for his detention
a privilege granted to a person that exempts him from prosecution for any self-incriminating testimony given by him before a court, grand jury, or investigating committee
a part of the bill of rights that reads, "the enumeration in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people."
right to bear arms
the guarantee in the second amendment of the right to keep weapon's, recognition that "a well regulated militia is necessary to the security of a free state"
right to counsel
the guarantee in the sixth amendment to the constitution that a defendant in a criminal case have the assistance of an attorney
search and seizure
methods by which police officers gather evidence and make arrests
testimony by a person that reveals facts that army result in a criminal prosecution against him
separation of church and state
a basic principle of American government that prohibits the mingling of church and state