Myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis) can result in failure of which of the following organs?
Kidneys. (Myoglobinuria can result in renal failure caused by accumulation of myoglobin in the renal tubules and caused by hypotension.)
A characteristic feature of fibromyalgia is:
Trigger point pain. (Fibromyalgia specifically manifests with trigger point pain or tenderness.)
Pain and inflammation associated with gout are caused by crystallization of _____ in the tissues.
Uric acid (Pain and inflammation associated with gout are caused by crystallization of uric acid in the tissues.)
Synovial joint problems in rheumatoid arthritis are due to which of the following pathologies?
Neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines cause damage to articular cartilage. (In rheumatoid arthritis, neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNF-alpha) cause damage to articular cartilage and the nearby synovium.)
Rheumatoid arthritis results from joint inflammation caused by:
Autoimmune injury. (Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by autoimmune injury to synovial joints.)
The primary manifestation of osteoarthritis is:
Joint pain. (Joint degeneration in osteoarthritis almost always causes pain in affected joints.)
Which of the following cancers involves the proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, causing skeletal pain?
Myeloma. (Myeloma is caused by the neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells that eventually penetrate into the bone marrow, resulting in significant bone destruction. The most common early symptom of myeloma is aching skeletal pain that increases in severity as the disease progresses.)
Which of the following disorders in characterized by enlargement and softening of the bones?
Paget disease. (Paget disease (osteitis deformans) is characterized by excessive bone resorption and formation, resulting in chronic enlargement and softening of certain bones.)
Which of the following diseases is characterized by osteomalacia in the growing bones of children?
Rickets. (Rickets is a form of osteomalacia caused by a vitamin D deficiency which results in soft, deformable bones.)
In osteomyelitis, the area of necrotic bone at the site of the infection is called the:
Sequestrum. (The area of devitalized bone tissue at the site of the infection is called the sequestrum).
The best screening test for osteoporosis is:
A dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. (A DEXA scan is the most useful test for evaluating bone density if osteoporosis is suspected).
Known causes of osteoporosis include all of the following except:
Late menopause. (Early menopause and late menarche are risk factors for the development of osteoporosis).
Factors contributing to the development of osteoporosis in older women include:
Decreased estrogen levels. (The hormone estrogen helps maintain bone strength and integrity in women. In menopause, decreased estrogen production increases a woman's risk of developing osteoporosis).
Patients with osteoporosis are at risk for which of the following problems?
Pathologic bone fractures (Osteoporosis weakens the bone structure and increases the risk of fracture).
The displacement of two bones in which the articular surfaces partially lose contact with each other is called:
Subluxation. (The displacement of two bones in which the articular surfaces partially lose contact with each other is called subluxation. Subluxation results in joint deformity, immobility, and pain).
Inflammation of a tendon where it attaches to the bone at its origin is called:
Epicondylitis. (Inflammation of a tendon where it attaches to the bone is called epicondylitis and is caused by repetitive movements).
Which of the following substances prevent proper bone healing?
Alcohol and nicotine. (Alcohol and nicotine can delay proper bone healing).
Which of the following pairs of symptoms is likely to manifest following a femoral fracture?
Pain and swelling in the thigh. (Because of inflammation, a fracture generally manifests with pain and swelling at the site of injury).
A fracture in which the bone breaks into two or more fragments is termed a(n):
Comminuted fracture. (A fracture in which the bone breaks into two or more fragments is called a comminuted fracture).
All of the following events occur following a bone fracture except:
An increase in the number of osteoclasts at the fracture site. (Osteoblasts migrate to the site of injury to repair the fractured bone tissue).