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Clinical Exam

Terms in this set (61)

panicked, helpless or

embarrassed.

BEHAVIOR THERAPY
THEORIZES, THAT
MOST BEHAVIOR
DISORDER ARE
CAUSED BY?

Anxiety and
avoidance.

The neurochemical
underpinning of
PTSD involves what

hormone?

Thyrotropin

There is strong evidence indicating
that veterans with PTSD from
combat stress show altered thyroid
profiles specifically elevations of T3,
which appear to be related to PTSD
symptoms, especially hyper arousal.

Avoidant
Personality
Disorder

Characterized by three major
components, extreme social
inhibition, feelings of
inadequacy, and sensitivity to
criticism or rejection.

ANHEDONIA Inability to feel pleasure.

What is considered a
positive symptom in the

diagnosis of
schizophrenia?

Positive symptoms of schizophrenia
refer to the symptoms that are added
to normal functioning. These
symptoms include hallucinations,
disorganized thinking, delusions, and
abnormal motor behavior.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

DENIAL

Inability to acknowledge
true significance of
thoughts, feelings, wishes,
behavior, or external
reality factors that are
consciously intolerable.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

CONVERSION

Anxiety is
transformed into
overt physical
manifestations.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

SUBSTITUTION

Individual replaces an
unattainable goal with
one that is attainable.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

OVERCOMPENSATION

Individual's extreme
efforts to counterbalance

a deficiency.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

RATIONALIZATION

When something happens
that we find difficult to
accept and we make up a
logical reason why it has

happened.

ZYPREXA IS A
MEDICATION

FOR?

Schizophrenia

An atypical
antipsychotic
medication.

PSEUDOMUTUALITY

When family members
mask dysfunctional
dynamics that are
threatening to the

family.

DETACHMENT
(WITHIN A FAMILY)

Family members rarely, if ever, talk
about their feelings with each other
and often operate in their own
spheres of existence rather than
relying on other family members for
feedback or emotional security.

What medication is
used to treat nocturia
(bedwetting) in
children?

Doxepin

A tricyclic
antidepressant.

What is the
difference between
uninvolved and
permissive parenting

styles?

Uninvolved parents have few
demands and little communication
with their children.
Permissive parents are indulgent,
have few demands, and hardly ever
discipline their children.

SECONDARY

GAIN

Factors that may serve as
incentives (conscious or
otherwise) for maintenance
of a symptom or "sick role"
that may be concrete,
psychological, or social.

PRIAMARY FOCUS
OF "GENERAL
SYSTEMS THEORY"

Mechanisms of
homeostasis.

PRESCRIBING
A SYMPTOM

"Paradoxical intervention" in
which behaviors assessed by the
therapist as dysfunctional or
nonproductive, are

encouraged/promoted/prescribed

by the therapist.

AVERSION
THEARPY

Pairs an unwanted behavior
with an unwanted stimulus,
the idea being that the
desirability of a behavior will

decrease.

OBJECT
RELATIONS
THEORY

A client's relationship
with others based on early
parent-child interactions
and the internalized self-
images that are focused on
these interactions.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

DISPLACEMENT

Shifting of actions from a
desired target to a substitute
target with there is some reason
why the first target is not
permitted or available.

SLANDER

Stating a false
statement about a
client. Oral form of
defamation of
character.

LIBEL A written false
statement.

IN VIVO

DESENSITIZATION

A behavioral modification
technique in which participants
are, in a 'live' setting, exposed
to more and more of the anxiety-
provoking stimulus. This is
meant to reduce the provoked

anxiety.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

INTELLECTUALIZATION

A client ignores their
feelings and objectively
analyzes the problem.

BROKER

A role that deals most
with the finding and
distribution of resources.

CHANGE
AGENT

A role that address the
needs of larger groups.

MEDIATORS A role that attempt to
help negotiate
differences between

parties.

ADVOCATE

A role that steps in to
speak up for the rights

of clients.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

REPRESSION

Subconsciously
removing threatening
thoughts from
awareness.

ETHNOGRAPHIC
INTERVIEWING

When a wide variety of
individual participants'
experiences and

themes/patterns among them
are primary material of
interest in the study.

STAGES OF GROUP

THERAPY

DIFFERENTIATION

In this 4 th Phase, group members
begin to see each other as unique
individuals, have respect for
other's opinions, communication
improves, and decisions are
made more objectively.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

SUBLIMATION

Occurs when a person chooses to
divert their desires that are
consciously intolerable and
cannot be directly realized into
creative actives that are
acceptable.

FORMATIVE
EVALUATION

Evaluation that is
conducted while
services are still
underway.

SUMMATIVE
EVALUATION

Evaluation that is
conducted once
services are
concluded.

IATROGENIC
DISEASE

A condition that is caused by some
aspect of intervention provided to
treat a presenting problem, which
may occur in a wide variety of
settings and treatment procedures.
(Caused by a person providing

treatment.)

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

REACTION
FORMATION

Acting in a manner that
is opposite of the
unconscious trait.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

DISSOCIATION

A process which enables a person to split
mental functions in a manner that allows
them to express forbidden or unconscious
impulses without taking responsibility for
the action, either because they are unable
to remember the disowned behavior, or
because it is not experienced as their own.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

SYMBOLIZATION

A mental representation
stands for some other
thing, class of things, or

attribute.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

UNDOING

A person uses words or
actions to symbolically
reverse or negate
unacceptable thoughts,
feelings, or actions.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

TURNING AGAINST

SELF

Defense to deflect
hostile aggression or
other unacceptable
impulses from another

to self.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

DISPLACEMENT

Shifting of actions from a
desired target to a substitute
target with there is some reason
why the first target is not
permitted or available.

COMPONENTS OF
A PSYCHOSOCIAL
ASSESSMENT

- Cultural Norms and
Practices
- Financial Status
- Coping Skills
- Client Strengthens and
Challenges
- Barriers to Care
- Areas Requiring
Additional Assessment
and Action

- Presenting Situation
- Demographic Information
- Treatment History
- Medical
- Cognitive Functioning
- Family (Origin and
Immediate)
- Social History and
Supports
- Community Involvement
- Spiritual Practices

WHAT DOES THE
ASSESSMENT TOOL
MONTREAL COGNITIVE
ASSESSMENT TEST
FORM (MOCA)
MEASURE?

Mild Cognitive
Dysfunction

TREATMENT
PLANNING
STEPS

Evidence-based Interventions
Diagnoses
o differential diagnoses
Rationalization for diagnosis
Goal-setting
o mutually agreed upon
o realistic and obtainable
o measurable and timely

PROTECTIVE
FACTOR FOR
SUICIDE
PREVENTION

Active and engaged support
system
Cultural and religious
beliefs discouraging suicide
Lack of access to lethal
methods

Freud's Psychosexual
Stages of Development

Anal

Years 2-3
Erogenous Zone: Bowel and Bladder Control
The primary focus of the libido was on controlling
bladder and bowel movements.
The major conflict at this stage is toilet training—the
child has to learn to control their bodily needs.
Developing this control leads to a sense of
accomplishment and independence.

Freud's Psychosexual
Stages of Development

Oral

Years 0-1
Erogenous Zone: Mouth
The primary source of interaction occurs through the
mouth. The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives
pleasure from oral stimulation.
Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers
the child also develops a sense of trust and comfort through
this oral stimulation.
The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process--
the child must become less dependent upon caretakers.

Freud's Psychosexual
Stages of Development

Phallic/Oedipal

Years 3-6
Erogenous Zone: Genitals
The primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. At this
age, children also begin to discover the differences between
males and females. ​
Freud believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a
rival for the mother's affections. The Oedipus complex
describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother
and the desire to replace the father. The child also fears that
he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear
Freud termed castration anxiety.

Freud's Psychosexual
Stages of Development

Latency

Years 6-11
Erogenous Zone: Sexual Feelings Are Inactive
The superego continues to develop while the id&#39
interest in the welfare of others
grows during this stage. The goal of this stage is to
establish a balance between the various life areas.

Piaget

Cognitive Theory

Sensorimotor

Years 0-2
Retains image of objects
Develops primitive logic in
manipulating objects
Begins intentional actions
Play is imitative
Signals means (language) begins in
the last part of this phase.

Piaget

Cognitive Theory

Preoperational

Years 2-7
Language development enables symbolic
functioning
Progress from concretism to abstract thinking
Can comprehend past, present, future
Night terrors
Acquires words, math symbols, music
symbols, and other codes
Magical thinking
Thinking is not generalized
Thinking is: concrete, irreversible, egocentric,
and centered on one detail or event

Piaget

Cognitive Theory

Concrete Operations

Years 7-11
Beginnings of abstract thought
Play games with rules
Cause-effect relationship understood
Logical implications understood
Thinking is independent of experience
Thinking is reversible
Rules of logic are developed

Piaget

Cognitive Theory

Formal Operations

Years 11 - 18
Cognition develops in its final
form
Capable of hypothetical and
deductive reasoning
Not limited to concrete thinking

Erickson's Theory of
Psychosocial Development

Infancy: Trust vs. Mistrust

Stage 1
The first task is to develop the cornerstone
of a healthy personality, a basic sense of
trust in self and in the environment.
If the care has been inconsistent,
unpredictable, unreliable, cold and/or
rejecting, then the infant may develop a
sense of mistrust, suspicion, and anxiety.

Erickson's Theory of
Psychosocial Development

Early Childhood: Autonomy
vs Shame and Doubt

Stage 2
The objective of this stage is to gain self-
control without loss of self-esteem. Since
toddlers are beginning to become self-
sufficient, fostering independence is
important. Opportunities need to be
provided for self-feeding toileting,
dressing and exploration for children to
become independent.

Erickson's Theory of
Psychosocial
Development

Play Age: Initiative vs.

Guilt

Stage 3 - Preschool Years
Children begin to assert their power and control
over the world through directing play and other
social interaction.
It is a stage of establishment of conscience.
Children who experience guilt will instead
interpret mistakes as a sign of personal failure and
may be left with a sense that they are &quot
they open the way for the capacity of work
enjoyment.
The danger of this period is development of a sense of
inadequacy and inferiority in a child who does not
receive recognition for their efforts.

Erickson's Theory of
Psychosocial Development

Adolescence: Identity vs.
Identity Diffusion

Stage 5
The stage is characterized by the
adolescent question of "Who am I,"
during which time they are conflicted with
dozens of values and ideas of who they
should be and what they should think

Erickson's Theory of
Psychosocial Development

Young Adulthood:
Intimacy vs. Isolation

Stage 6
A young adult development of intimacy
with themselves, friends, and romantic
relationship.
A person who cannot enter wholly into an
intimate relationship because of fear of
losing their identity may develop a deep
sense of isolation.

Erickson's Theory of
Psychosocial
Development

Adulthood: Generativity
vs. Self-Absorption

Stage 7
Out of intimacies of adulthood grows
generativity - the mature person's interest in
establishing and guiding the next generation.
The lack of generativity results in self-
absorption and frequently in a "pervading
sense of stagnation and interpersonal
impoverishment."

Erickson's Theory of
Psychosocial Development

Senescence: Integrity vs.

Despair

Stage 8
People reflect back on the life they have
lived and come away with either a sense
of fulfillment from a life well lived or a
sense of regret and despair over a life
misspent.

Elizabeth Kubler-
Ross's STAGES OF
DEATH AND
DYING

1. Denial and Isolation
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance

MASLOW'S
HIERARCY OF

NEEDS

AUTHORITARIAN
PARENTING

Patterns of Parents:
Very restrictive, adults set all the rules and
expect strict obedience. Rely only on forceful,
punitive discipline (power or withdrawal of
love) to force compliance.
Patterns of Children:
Conflicted and irritable, fearful and
apprehensive, unfriendly, moody, unhappy,
vulnerable to stress, aimless.

AUTHORITATIVE
PARENTING

Patterns of Parents:
Flexible, allow children autonomy, but explain
restrictions, responsible to child's needs and point
of view, expect child to comply with restrictions
and will use power and reason.
Patterns of Children:
Energetic, friendly, self-reliant, cheerful, self-
controlled, copes well with stress, cooperative
with adults, curios, purposive, achievement
oriented.

PASSIVE
PARENTING

Patterns of Parents:
Lax, parents make relatively few demands, permit
children to freely express feelings and impulses,
do not closely monitor children's actives, and
rarely exert firm control over behavior.
Patterns of Children:
Impulsive, aggressive, rebellious, low self-
reliance and self-control, impulsive, domineering,
aimless, and low in achievement.

CYCLE OF
VIOLENCE

Phase 1: Tension Building
Phase 2: Acute Battering
Incident (shortest period of
the cycle)
Phase 3: Loving-Contrition
(honeymoon)

BATTERED
WOMAN
SYNDROME

A group of psychological
symptoms including cognitive
disturbance, high avoidance,
isolation and withdrawal,
depression, and high arousal and
anxiety that are consistent with
the criteria for PTSD.

SOCIAL
EXCHANGE
THEORY

Based on the idea of totaling potential
benefits and losses to determine
behavior. People make decisions about
relationships based on the rewards they

receive from them.

(DV victims use this to decide to stay

or leave.)

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

COMPENSATION

Enables one to make up for real
or imagined deficiencies.
(e.g. some who stutters becomes
an expressive writer.)

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

IDEALIZATION

Overestimation of an admired
aspect or attribute of another.
May be conscious or
unconscious.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

IDENTIFICATION

Universal mechanism whereby a
person patterns himself after a
significant other. Plays major
role in personality development
especially superego
development.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

IDENTIFICATION WITH
THE AGGRESSOR

Mastering anxiety by identifying
with a powerful aggressor to
counteract feelings of
helplessness and to feel
powerful. Usually involves
behaving like the aggressor.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

INCORPORATION

Primitive mechanism in which
psychic representation of a
person (or part of a person) is/are
figuratively ingested.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

INHIBITION

Loss of motivation to engage
in activity avoided because it
might stir up conflict over
forbidden impulses.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

INTROJECTION

Love or hated external
objects are symbolically
absorbed within self
(converse of projection.)

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

ISOLATION OF AFFECT

Unacceptable impulse, idea, act
is separated from its original
memory source, thereby
removing the original emotional
charge associated with it.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

PROJECTION

Primitive defense
wishes, feelings, urges to
some external object.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

REGRESSION

Partial or symbolic return to
more infantile patterns of
reacting or thinking.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

SPLITTING

Organization in which a person
perceives self and others as "all
good" or "all bad." A person can not
integrate the good and bad in people.
Associated with Borderline
Personality Disorder.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

PROJECTIVE
IDENTIFICATION

Unconsciously perceiving
other's behavior as a
reflection of one's own

identity.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

ACTING OUT

Emotional conflict is dealt with
through actions rather than

feelings.

DEFENSE
MECHANISM

DECOMPENSATION

Deterioration of existing

defenses.

SUCCESSIVE
APPROXIMATIONS

A series of rewards that provide
positive reinforcement for
behavior changes that are
successive steps towards the
final desired behavior.

SOCIAL
INHIBITION

A broad personality trait that refers
to the stable tendency to inhibit the
expression of emotions and
behaviors in social interaction.
Individuals who are high in SI are
more likely to feel inhibited, tense,
and insecure when with others.

CONFABULATION

A symptom manifested by filling in gaps
of a client's memory with material that is
created during the course of narrative
about history or personal experience,
w/out client intent to deceive, and w/out
recognition or concern when challenged.
Found in certain types of severe memory
disorders.

ALEXITHYMIA

Difficulties individual may have
with identifying and/or
expressing their emotions.
An influential factor in treating
adults who have childhood
histories of emotional abuse.

DROMOMANIA
NYMPHOMANIA
GRAPHOMANIA
ABLUTOMANIA

Dromomania - uncontrollable urge
to travel.
Nymphomania - uncontrollable
desire for sexual intercourse.
Graphomania - obsessive urge to
write.
Ablutomania - obsession with
washing hands.

DEPENDENT
PERSONALITY
DISORDER

Pattern of thoughts and behavior
most characterized by an excessive
helplessness, dependency, or
submission to others. People often
cannot make decisions by
themselves and seem to be unable to
accomplish important tasks with

independence.

STATISTICAL
METHOD OF
REGRESSION
ANALYSIS

A measure of the degree to
which one variable (or a measure
of that variable) is related to one
or more others. It does not
assume that finding a significant
relationship also implies or
verifies causality.

REALITY
TESTING
(INTERVENTION)

When a social worker evaluates
a client's ability to judge the
external work objectively and to
distinguish between it and the
ideas that are in the client's

mind.

INTERPRETATION
(INTERVENTION)

When a social worker offers an
explanation to a client in order to
enhance the understanding, make
connections, and facilitate the
development of insight.

CONFRONTATION
(INTERVENTION)

When a social worker brings
together opposing ideas,
impulses, or groups in order
to compare them.

PARADOXICAL
DIRECTIVE
(INTERVENTION)

When a social worker tells the
family members to continue
their symptomatic behavior with
the goal of the family members
actually doing the opposite.

CHRONIC
SORROW

A term often used to describe
the cyclical nature of the
sadness that an individual
suffering from chronic illness

or disability.

The perspective of
behavioral treatment
of depression is that
depressive symptoms
result from?

Absent or inadequate
reinforcement

SECONDARY

GAIN

Comprised by factors that may
serve as incentives (conscious or
otherwise) for maintenance of a
symptom or "sick role" that may
be concrete, psychological, or

social.

PIAGET'S MODEL OF
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
PREOPERATIONAL

2-7 years old
A movement toward more
abstract thinking and a
conception of time: past, present,
and future
Magical thinking is very likely
present and most think is
egocentric

PIAGET'S MODEL OF
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
SENSORIMOTOR

0-2 years old
Develops primitive logic in
manipulating objects
Begins intentional actions
Play is imitative
Signals meaning (language)
begins in the last part of this
phase

PIAGET'S MODEL OF
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
CONCRETE OPERATIONS

7-11 years old
Beginnings of abstract thought
Plays games with rules
Cause-effect relationship understood
Thinking is independent of experience
Thinking is reversible
Rules of logic are developed

PIAGET'S MODEL OF
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
FORMAL OPERATIONS

11-18 years old
Cognition develops in its final
form
Capable of hypothetical and
deductive reasoning
Not limited to concrete thinking

EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH
DESIGN

Random assignment of
participants and the
measure of intervention vs.
non-intervention.

QUASI-

EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH
DESIGN

Only has intervention
and comparison groups.

RESIDUAL
SOCIAL WELFARE

A program that is
emergency based.

UNIVERSAL
SOCIAL WELFARE

Benefits to all
members of society.

INSTITUTIONAL
SOCIAL WELFARE

Focuses on prevention.

PRE-

EXPERIMENTAL
RESEARCH
DESIGN

Only measures the effect
of an intervention.

ACRONYM FOR
APPLICATION
ONLY
(FIRST/NEXT)
QUESTIONS

S- Safety
F- Feelings
A- Assess
R - Refer
E - Educate
A - Advocate
F - Facilitate
I - Intervene

ACRONYM FOR
BEST/MOST
QUESTIONS

A- Acknowledge client/patient
A- Assess
S - Start where the client is
P - Protect life (of the individual and
community)
I - Intoxicated don't treat
which is reflective
of normal self-centeredness that is
rampant during teenage years.
Teenagers are immune to consequences,
which is why so many adolescents engage
in risky behaviors.

"CIRCUMSTANTIAL"
COMMUNICATION

A form of verbal communication
in which an individual may
speak at length while the actual
information expressed is not
about the central point of the

topic at hand.

UNIVERSAL
INSTITUTIONAL
PROGRAM

A prevention-focused
program that provides
benefits to all members of

society.
(Education)

UNIVERSAL
RESIDUAL
PROGRAM

An emergency based
program that provides
benefits to all members

of society.
(FEMA)

SELECTIVE
RESIDUAL
PROGRAM

A short-term program
provided to a restricted group
that demonstrates a need.
(Food stamps)

SELECTIVE
INSITUTIONAL
PROGRAM

A prevention-focused program
provided to a restricted group
that demonstrates a need.
(social security)

EGO-SYNTONIC
BEHAVIORS

In sync with the
functioning part of the
mind and do not result in
the negative effects.

EGO-DYSTONIC
BEHAVIORS

Not in sync with the
overall psyche, and
which will result in
guilt, stress, and anxiety.

FOUR TYPES

OF

MODELING

1. Symbolic - not directly participating,
only watching at a distance.
2. Convert - visualization and imagination
to establish modeling scenarios.
3. Participant - witnessing a live person
perform the behavior and then
participating oneself.
4. Live - the observation of desired
behavior.

THE SLEEPER
EFFECT

A psychological phenomenon that can
occur in children exposed to domestic
violence and other abusive situation.
Exposure to violence in home is linked to
aggressive behavior in children.
Due to development changes the impact
may not be clear until age 8.

THE PRINCIPLE
OF LESSER
ELIGIBILITY

The belief that no one who
receives public assistance
should have a higher
income than the lowest
paid worker.

COMMUNICATION

THEORY

FEEDBACK

How one's behavior has
affected their internal
states and surroundings
universal ethical principles.
Concern for larger universal issues of
morality.

THREE LEVELS OF
THE MIND

Conscious - mental actives of which we
are fully aware.
Preconscious - thoughts and feeling which
can be brought into consciousness easily.
Unconscious - thoughts, feelings, desires,
and memories of which we are unaware.

WARNING SIGNS
OFABUSE

Suspicious injury
Somatic complaints without a specific
diagnosis
Sexual/gynecological/gastrointestinal
problems
Psychological problems
Pregnancy/pregnancy-related
problems

UNIVERSALISM

'Ours' is the norm/standard for
everyone vs. there are other valid
standards that have developed by
people which they have determined
to be most useful to them.

DICHOTOMOUS
THINKING

'Either-or' thinking, differences
are inferior, wrong, bad vs.
'both-and' thinking, difference
are just different and co-exist.

RISK FACTORS
FOR ALCOHOL
AND OTHER DRUG

ABUSE

Demographic - male, inner city/rural residence combined with low
SES, lack of employment opportunities.
Family- parents, siblings, and/or spouse use substances. Family
dysfunction, family trauma (a family history is the strongest
predictor for developing an alcohol problem.)
Social - peers use drugs/alcohol, social or cultural norms condone
use of substance, expectations about positive effects of drugs and
alcohol, drugs/alcohol are available.
Genetic- Inherited predisposition to alcohol/drug dependence.
Psychiatric - Depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, low tolerance
for stress, feelings of desperation, loss of control over life.
Behavioral - Aggressive behavior in childhood, conduct disorder,
avoidance of responsibilities, impulsivity and risk taking, poor
interpersonal relationships, school dropout, reckless behavior

CAUSES OF
SUBSTANCE ABUSE

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL

MODEL

Most comprehensive explanation for the
complex nature of substance abuse

disorders.

It incorporates hereditary predisposition,
emotional/psychological problems, social
influences, and environmental problems.

CAUSES OF
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
MEDICAL/BIOLOGICAL

MODEL

(Brian reward mechanism and Altered Brain chemistry)

Addiction is considered a chronic, progressive,
elapsing, and potentially fatal medical disease.
Brian reward mechanism - substances act on
parts of brain and reinforce continued use by
producing pleasurable feelings.
Altered Brain chemistry - habitual use of
substances alters brain chemistry and continued
use of substances is required to avoid feeling
discomfort from the brain imbalance.

CAUSES OF
SUBSTANCE ABUSE

SELF- MEDICATION

Substances relieve symptoms of
a psychiatric disorder and
continued used is reinforced by
relief of symptoms.

CAUSES OF SUBSTANCE

ABUSE
FAMILY AND

ENVIROMENTAL MODEL

Finds explanation for substance abuse in
family and environmental factors such
as: behaviors shaped by family and
peers, constitutional and personality
factors, physical and sexual abuse,
disorganized communities, school

factors.

CAUSES OF
SUBSTANCE ABUSE

CLINICAL MODEL

Drug abuse linked to emotional problems
Use substances to escape painful problem

of life.

Associated with psychological
characteristics such as poor self-esteem,
poor coping mechanisms, feelings of

rejection.

CAUSES OF
SUBSTANCE ABUSE

SOCIAL MODEL

DRUG use is learned from and reinforced by
members of subculture who serve as role models.
Potential drug abusers share the same values and
activities as subgroup member who use
substances.
There are no controls that prevent use of
substances.
Social, economic, and political factors: racism,
poverty, sexism, etc.

CONTRAINDICATED

Not recommended or
safe to use.

ENDOGENOUS
DEPRESSION

Depression caused by a biochemical
imbalance rather than a psychosocial
stressor or external factors.
Symptoms are more severe and consist
of the classic symptoms of depression

EXOGENOUS
DEPRESSION

Depression caused by external
events or psychosocial stressors.
Symptoms tend to be less severe
than those of endogenous depression.

FOLIE A DEUX

A person may develop a
delusional system as a result of a
close relationship with a person
who already has an established
delusional system.

PREMORBID AND
POSTMORBID

Pre - prior to the onset
of an illness.

Post - subsequent to the
onset of an illness.