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What type of environment is best for preventing parasites?
hygienic environment where feces are picked up regularly
What is the target treatment for parasites?
run a fecal egg count
- more adults = higher amount of eggs
If a horse is naturally below the worm threshold even without deworming, what does this tell us?
the parasite never grows to a. level that causes health concerns and therefore no need to treat them for worms regularly
If 1/5 of the horses in your herd have a high parasite count but the 4/5 are below the threshold how would you manage this?
treating the 1/5 is just as good as treating the whole herd
What is the concept of refusa?
if we constantly treat horses with deworms, they develop resistance, eventually we will not be able to kill them off
High shedders = ____ fecal count
When do we deworm high shedders?
spring & fall & additionally throughout the year
- frequency depends on drug but usually year round because they carry the most parasites in your herd
Low shedders = _____ fecal count
When do we deworm low shedders? Test?
at key times (spring & fall)
- FEC in summer
Why do we deworm in the spring?
because small strongyles will start to emerge from lining
Why do we deworm in late fall or early winter?
because of tapeworms
- thats when transmission ends
How do we treat moderate shedders?
similar to low shedders
What is any horse under 2 years of age assumed to be?
- regardless of fecal egg count
When do we start deworming suckling & weaning horses?
2 months fo age & every 2 weeks
- with benzimidazoles & pyrimidines
When do we deworm foaling mares?
spring with ivermectin or after they foal
- whichever comes first
How do we treat heavy infested horses?
slow kill strategy
What is the slow kill strategy?
· Give medication that des not kill all of the parasite at once
· Give multiple doses
· At the very end, give a heavy dose that kills a majority of them
What are anthelmintics?
- kill parasites
Vaccines create ________ antibiotics _____ bacteria
When deworming, is it better to go over or under?
Better to over dose so they get the correct amount (most safe to give 2-3x more than they are supposed to get)
What is deworming dose based off of?
What does rotation of drug products mean?
product a & b
What has to happen for rotation to work?
both have to work
- one cannot have resistance
How does resistance occur?
- give a low enough level that it only kills 70% then other will see the drug & can build resistance to it
- give a drug that does not work & then other see it and build resistance
What are the three dug classes of broad spectrum anthelmintics?
avermectin, benzimidazoles, pyrimidines
ivermectin & moxidectin
fenbendazole & oxybendazole
What two classes have the highest prevalence of resistance?
benzimidazoles & pyrimidines
Which class has the best deworming products?
Most horse producers use avermectin for adults. Why?
covers everything but roundworms
- roundworms not a big deal with adults
Which medicine can young horse not take
moxidectin - avermectin
What intestinal parasites do avermectins not treat?
What medicine is the only one that kills small strongyles?
Why do we limit avermectin usage?
because it works so well we do not want resistance
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