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22 terms

The Ontological Argument

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Ontological
Concerned with being
A priori
Uses reason alone rather than relying on evidence of senses or world around us
Deductive
Premises contain conclusion
Analytic
True by definition
Plantinga
Offered modal form of the argument: God must exist in all possible worlds since maximally great and excellent
Malcolm
God's existence neither impossible nor contingent=>necessary
Doctrine of existence as perfection='remarkably queer'
Gasking
Developed ontological argument for non-existence of God
Russell
'Cows are brown and exist'=tautology, only tells us one thing (i.e. 'cows are brown')
Kant
Establish existence then define not vice versa
Aquinas
God's existence has to be demonstrated a posteriori, Anselm's definition of God not necessarily shared by all believers
Hume
Existence could only ever be contingent
Gaunilo
Used example of perfect island to demonstrate that if logic of argument applied to things other than God it led to invalid conclusions
Counter-arguments to Gaunilo
Perfect island: no intrinsic maximum, subjective and contingent
Atheist
Has failed to grasp full implications of concept of God according to Anselm
Reductio ad absurdum
Method of reasoning aiming to show truth of something by reducing to absurdity the very opposite
Anselm's definition of God
'that than which nothing greater can be conceived'
Descartes
French rationalist philosopher
Descartes' definition of God
'supremely perfect being'
Cancer, evil dictators and tsunamis
Things we would consider more perfect if only existed in the mind
De dicto
By definition
In intellectu
In the mind
In re
In reality