brought the issue of the tragedy of the commons to a broader scientific community
a cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in its purchase price
maximum sustainable yield
the maximum amount that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource; adequately replaced by population growth.
managed for scientific, educational, and recreational use; for their beauty or unique landforms; protect species, generate tourism
managed resource protection areas
allows for the sustained use of biological, mineral, and recreational resources. ; managed in many countries for multiple use.
habitat/species management areas
managed to maintain biological communities using fire protection or predator control.
strict nature reserves and wilderness areas
estalished to protect species and ecosystems from habitat destruction, hunting and hybridization
protected landscapes and seascapes
combine the nondestructive use of natural resources with opportunities for tourism and recreation, home to endemic plant and animal species and marine habitat
set aside to protect unique sites of special natural or cultural interest.
resource conservation ethic
maximizes resource use for greater common good; considers instrumental and intrinsic values of nature (economic, scientific, recreational, and aesthetic purposes)
A U.S. classification used to designate lands that may be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction
Bureau of land management.
united states forest service
national park service
fish and wildlife service
dry, open grasslands used primarily for cattle grazing
Taylor Grazing Act of 1934
allows Department of the Interior to issue grazing permits and collect fees to graze animals on public land
ecologically sustainable forestry
has a goal of maintaining all species, both plants and animals, in a close to a natural state as possible
large areas typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species
A fire deliberately set under controlled conditions in order to reduce the accumulation of dead biomass on a forest floor
national wilderness areas
U.S. federal public lands managed for purpose of preserving portions of intact ecosystems or landscapes; roadless, human use is limited, future logging/construction/mining banned while previous activities (ex., mining) are allowed to continue
national environmental policy act (nepa)
a 1969 U.S. federal act that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits
environmental impact statement (eis)
A document outlining the scope and purpose of a development project, describing the environmental context, suggesting alternative approaches to the project, and analyzing the environmental impact of each alternative
environmental mitigation plan
states how it will address the project' environmental impact'
An area surrounding a metropolitan center, with a comparatively low population density
An area similar to a suburb, but unconnected to any central city or densely populated area
creation of urbanized areas that spread into rural areas, removing clear boundaries between the two
The degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs
highway trust fund
a U.S. federal fund that pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways
The phenomenon in which increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow
Dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing.
A zoning classification that allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area
Efficient use of land resources and existing urban infrastructure.
people with an interest in a particular place or issue
sense of place
feeling that an area has a distinct and meaningful character
transit-oriented development (tod)
Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth
Development that fills in vacant lots within existing communities
urban growth boundaries
A regional boundary, set in an attempt to control urban sprawl by mandating that the area inside the boundary be used for higher density urban development and the area outside to be used for lower density development. Used by local governments as a guide to zoning and land use decisions
the right of the government to take private property for public use, with reasonable compensation awarded for the property