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Middle School Praxis 0049
Middle School Praxis 0049 study material
Terms in this set (325)
A Literal Question
The answer is clearly stated in the text.
Harlem Renaissance Poetry
Characterized by its roots in African American spirituals and jazz. Associated with the American urban experience.
Wrote: Life on the Mississippi. Once condemned for bad grammar, delinquent mail character, and critical view of organized religion, today Huck Fin is controversial for its racial slurs and what some consider demeaning images of African Americans.
SHOWS rather than TELLS who a character is. Five methods: the character's thoughts, words, actions, or appearance, and the opinion of other characters.
The explicit description of a character. Words such as: honest, timid, strong, loving, etc. that TELL us about the character.
When the opposite of what we expect to happen actually happens.
When the audience or reader knows something that the characters do not know.
Build from a conclusion to a larger premise
Rhetorical Argument (Deductive Reasoning)
Build from accepted truths to specific conclusions. The conclusion logically follows the premises.
consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
A long narrative poem on a serious subject told in a formal and/or elevated style centering on a heroic figure. An epic is in a forma style, not an ordinary speaking voice. An epic is not depressing, but is about heroes and mythical figures.
Regional Writing (aka Local Color)
literary use of distinctive characteristics and/or idiosyncrasies of a particular locality and/or its inhabitants. Think Huck Fin.
language that appeals to the senses and paints a picture in the reader's mind
two consecutive rhyming lines
putting together or arranging elements to make a whole pattern or product
first-hand information: personal correspondence, interviews, etc.
the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, plants, or animals
an exaggeration: I spent a million hours on my report!
a short, concise poem that deals with a single thought or event and ends with a "twist" or an ingenious turn of thought
rhyme within a given line of poetry
a stylistic device that gives a hint of what is to come
the pragmatic (or practical) cueing system involves...
involves the understanding that people use language differently in different contexts
what does phonological cueing involve?
Using the knowledge of matching written symbols with their sounds, or grapheme-phoneme relation. Limitations: Can only be used effectively for words in which the letter patterns are known to the reader, and the reader must also know how to analyze an unknown word.
What Does Syntactic Cueing involve?
Using the reader's grammatical knowledge of spoken and written language to figure out the significance of an unknown word in a text. Using the meaning of the text and the context. Not the structure of the language. Syntactic cueing does not refer to the social and cultural aspects of the writing.
What is Semantic Cueing?
Semantic cueing involves using the meaning of the text and the context to figure out an unknown word. Semantic Cues include: genre of the selection; the illustrations; reader's knowledge of topic selected; and context of written words.
Reading Challenging Text
Don't show the film version before you read the text!
Teachers should provide context for the students and help with archaic language. Graphic organizers help students keep track of characters and complicated plot lines.
characteristics of strong readers
knowledge of syntax and the structure of language are essential critical reading skills. But knowledge of specific grammatical terms are not shown to be important in critical reading.
What is language acquisition according to Noam Chomsky and Jean Piaget?
Language acquisition is an innate, developmental process. However, nurture may affect the process. Therefore early intervention is an effective approach to mitigating language deficits caused by innate or environmental factors.
What is the purpose of the argumentative essay?
to present a point of and promote evidence, which may be factual or anecdotal, and to support the argument. The structure is usually very formal, as in debate, with counter-positions and counterarguments.
An analytical essay shows how something works or what it is (e.g. a story, a disease, and engine) by breaking it down into its component parts
tells a story and has a discernible plot and characters
enables the teacher and the student to observe certain things as they write and asses the composition
used to explain what students do in classrooms and to indicate some of their capabilities
Five iambs per line
iamb = unstressed, stressed syllables
Make a command, utilizing 'you' as the understood subject. "Up and help us". This sentence doesn't say "you, up and help us", but that is the understood meaning. These sentences are a call to action.
What is a Portfolio?
A portfolio is a purposeful collection of work that exhibits efforts, progress, and achievement of students and enables teachers to document teaching in an authentic setting.
Lexile Range Indicates...
the student's current reading level. For reading instruction to be effective, it is important that reading materials not be too far above or below a student's reading level.
How should individual goals be set for a student?
Individual goals for a student should be a cooperative effort of teacher and student.
A story in which characters, settings, and events stand for other people or events or for abstract ideas and qualities.
"The Pilgrim's Progress" chronicles the character Pilgrim's journey to the Celestial City, an ALLEGORY for man's journey to salvation.
"Animal Farm" is an allegorical expression of the Russian Revolution.
the speaker says one thing, but means another.
"The" is a type of adjective called a DEFINITE ARTICLE
"A" is an indefinite article
"An" is an indefinite article
"With" is a preposition
"And" is a conjunction
where two words are combined to form a new one. If the new word becomes an adjective, then we have a compound adjective, like: redheaded.
repetition of similarly constructed phrases, clauses, or sentences.
Parallelism or parallel construction is the repetition of identical grammatical elements in a sentence: ... rummaging...dumping...knocking.
Comparison using like or as
characters that represent opposite traits or ideas for the purpose of highlighting an important theme of work. Tom the cruel realist, and Gatsby, the romantic dreamer are examples. Both Jim and Pap are father figures to Huck, but Jim is caring and protective while Pap, who is Huck's real father, is cruel and abandons him.
character who opposes the protagonist. for example, Huck is opposed by his alcoholic father, but he is also opposed by a society that does not approve of him
the character who takes the lead, drives the action in a work of fiction or drama. This would be Huck.
a short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident that serves to elucidate a point or idea
generalizations about groups of people based on one example
A occurs before B; therefore A causes B
an argument that does not logically follow the statement before
a legitimate and effective tool in establishing a comprehensive argument
An effective persuasive argument includes a full recognition and clear analysis of the counterargument showing its strengths and weaknesses.
It doesn't necessarily need to include an explanation of your personal feelings or emotions.
language characteristics of a particular region or group of people. Like Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn--southern dialect. Twain mimics the diction and syntax of a semi-literate boy from a small town in Missouri.
This is the same thing as Local Color
refers to abstract ides or concepts such as love, courage, and honesty
This is the planning phase. Everything a writer does before creating the first draft is a part of this phase. A great deal of thinking happens here.
Think about a topic (brainstorm, talk, jot down ideas, make a list)
Delimiting a Topic
Organize info in an organizational format
Pick your audience
Choose your point of view
Research and Documentation Techniques
Last steps of prewriting
the true telling of a person's life.
Written by someone other than the subject
The Harlem Renaissance
Associated with African American writers in the 1920s and 1930s.
Big names: Hughes and Cullen
These writers took cues from African American forms of expression including jazz and spirituals
adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They answer the questions: when, where, how and to what degree?
to introduce lists
to clarify and expand upon the first clause
breaks a subject into its component parts
Makes a strong statement at the beginning of the sentence and then further supports, clarifies, expands upon, or describes that statement in the longer rest of the sentence.
A Periodic Sentence
Has the bulk of words at the beginning leading to the most important part of the sentence at the end.
a direct object is a noun or a pronoun that follows a transitive verb and answers the question who or what.
introduce dependent clauses, not complete sentences or independent clauses.
-Time: after, while, before
-Cause: since, because
-Condition: unless, if
-Contrast or Concession: despite, although
words that sound like what they mean.
buzz, hiss, whoosh, ding-dong, snap, crackle, pop
the intentional repetition of words
The Bible is filled with this figure of speech: "Blessed are the..."
An inconsistent comparison.
Example: She was stretched so far she was almost completely buried. Here we have two separate metaphors (stretched and buried) that are competing.
a play on multiple meanings of a word or homonyms cleverly used for an often humorous effect
short phrase constructions that present a paradox. Words that have opposite connotations, or meanings
Students with Difficulty Retaining Information
Increase the amount of time the student spends on repetition and review.
If tow or more independent clauses are run together without a conjunction or proper punctuation (semi-colon), it is a run-on sentence.
Comma-splices are common run-on sentences. Here, two or more independent clauses are joined by a comma. The comma typically needs to be changed into a semi-colon.
A sentence that does not have a complete independent clause
One's mother tongue is one's indigenous, or native, language, or the first language one leans to speak.
Language Acquisition Program
Whether students are learning a single language or multiple languages, the language acquisition program in which they are engaged must challenge them both academically and linguistically.
slant line is a close but inexact rhyme
occurs at the end of lines
An indirect reference to a previous source. Like if someone says, "you're no Don Juan". The Allusion is Don Juan--a prior written source being made reference to.
no longer in common usage, so difficult for today's student's to understand
two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed one.
three syllables, stressed followed by two unstressed
syllables are stressed, unstressed
Five pairs of unstressed, stressed syllables
The Prologue is an example of a Shakespearean sonnet. it is 14 lines of iambic pentameter. the rhyme scheme is ABAB CDCD EFEF GG. The last two lines are often called the rhyming couplet
Subordinators make a clause or phrase dependent rather than independent.
Subordinators introduce embedded clauses in order to reduce ambiguity and increase continuity.
"We were shocked that Gillian hit the home run" The subordinator is "that"
Active versus Passive Voice Sentences
Active--occurs when the subject performs the action: Jeanette "placed"
In passive voice sentences, the subject is being acted upon: The car "was parked"
Charles Dickens use of Contrasts
Comparing the best and the worst of times and using the phrase "dead, to begin with" suggest that such would not always be the case are examples of Dickins use of contrasts
History of English Language
it all started with the arrival of three invading Germanic tribes during the 5th century CE. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and Northern Germany into England. Although, at that time, the Brits spoke a Celtic language, English is a member of the Germanic family of languages. Germanic is a branch of the Indo-European language family.
the repetition of vowel sounds (Assonance begins with a vowel--think vowel sounds)
Antecedent of a pronoun
the antecedent of a pronoun is the word that is being replaced.
Gillian got up. She was hungry. Here, "she" is replacing "Gillian" so Gillian is the antecedent to the pronoun "she"
the repetition of initial consonant sounds
poetry without set rhyme and meter.
a type of poetry that transcends traditional rhythm and rhyme schemes
draws a comparison to show how two things are alike, often with the purpose of instruction
The American Library Association (ALA) presents this award to a picture book
literary award that the American Library Association (ALA) present yearly
rhyme can refer to corresponding sounds, to rhyme schemes, and/or to the metrical order; rhyme is not a group of lines
a group of lines in a poem
there is often a metrical order and a repeated rhyme
don't confuse with verse
(read between the lines)
A figure of speech in which one thing is likened to some wholly different thing: "that leacherous man is a wolf"
An abstract comparison between two things: "And she steal love's sweet bait from fearful hooks"
Whose literal meaning is unrelated to the thing being described.
a character's conflict with the outside world.
The Rising Action Or Complications
the events of the plot, the bulk of the story
Point of View
The perspective of the narration
occurs within the character
Occurs at the beginning of the story where the characters, settings, and conflicts are introduced.
Sets the groundwork for a work of fiction or a drama
the high point of the work, where the main conflict will be decided one way or another.
the end of the plot where the plot, where the conflicts will be resolved, or perhaps left unresolved or ambiguous, leaving an opening for a sequel.
use this technique to reveal topics for writing assignments
Focused Freewriting: each student focuses on an idea, word or phrase and then writes everything possible about the focus topic that comes to mind within a given time limit. Continue to write for the entire time. Save product in writing folder for future development.
Common literary elements include: plot, characters, climax, theme, mood, resolution and setting.
the who in the story. Can be an object like the tea pot in The Beauty and the Beast or a human like Harry Potter
the main character of the story. Not always a good guy
the character that helps the Protagonist solve the conflict by opposing that character
WHEN and WHERE the story takes place
The events that make a story. You will have rising events that lead to the climax and falling events that lead to the resolution. So it goes... EXPOSITION ... RISING ACTION...CLIMAX...FALLING ACTION...RESOLUTION
The problem in the story. Types of conflict:
man v self
man v nature
man v society
man v man
the lesson or moral from the story. what can I take away from the story?
Point of View
The Person that is telling the story...
First Person: Narrator is personally participating in the story as it unfold (I, me, my we, and us)
Second Person: Someone who participated is telling you the story (you)
Third Person: A narrator telling a story they had nothing to do with. (he, she, it, they)
Omniscient: Narrator tells feelings, etc. of all characters.
Limited Omniscient: Narrator shares the feelings, thoughts of one character only
Camera View/Objective View: Don't know thoughts, etc. can only tell what you objectively see happening
Necessary in order to have a readable selection. Icing on the cake!
All devices are not in each story
Examples of devices: simile, rhythm, repetition, or alliteration
words with the same sounds (cat and hat)
the cadence or beat of the piece--its music. :)
shows where something is in time or place
At--a specific location
On--on a surface
So, I am in a house at 25564 on Arthur Place.
-separate two closely related independent clauses
-to separate a list where there are commas
Delimiting a Topic
The teacher needs to model topic selection and the process of delimiting the topic. Students should do exercises in delimiting topics. Eventually, the will be able to delimit their own topic.
To help in the delimiting process, advise students: limit subject to one person or one example, limit to a specific time or place, specific event, condition, purpose or procedure.
If students can't delimit a topic, then they may end up with a topic too broad to cover within the time and or page constraints.
consider what the purpose of the finished piece will be
-explain or inform
-to express personal thoughts, feelings or opinions
Sometimes writers combine two or more of these
strategies to help students to organize their thoughts during the prewriting phase:
-sematic (context cues) webbing
Teachers should remind students to engage in one of these activities before starting any writing activity because kids want to skip this step usually. This step increases likelihood that their writing will be organized.
Characteristics of Good Writing
varies among disciplines
What counts as a good lab report differs from what constitutes a successful history paper, essay exam, or literary interpretation.
Stages of Writing
4) Editing and Evaluation
5) Rewriting -- The Final Rewrite
Research Techniques-- Stage of Writing
1) Establish a time frame
2) Choose a topic, and start developing a thesis statement
3) consult resources
4) Record the bibliography info in correct style
Documentation Techniques--Stage of Writing
Two main styles:
1) MLA (Modern Language Association)
-Style most frequently used
-example: Johnson, Owen. Stover at Yale. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1912
-example when citing in body of work: (Author)_____ (pg)
2) APA (American Psychological Association)
- example: Johnson, O. (1912). Stover at Yale. New York: Frederick A. Stokes. (NOTE that "Stover at Yale" is italized)
- example when citing in body of work: (author, pg)
Last Steps of the Prewriting Stage
-develop the final outline
-organize the note cards in the same order as the outline
-write the rough draft
-check the documentation carefully
-rewrite-check all parts (text, citations, bibliography)
what is the audience you intend to reach? Ask:
-who will be reading my work?
-How old are they?
-are they adults, teenagers or children?
-What background do they have in the subject?
-What interests and opinions are they likely to have?
-Are there words I should define for them?
This group may be a difficult one for a writer or speaker to address:
-Most demanding audience in terms of knowledge, presentation, and graphics or visuals.
-Experts are often theorists or practitioners.
-Document formats are often elaborate and technical
-Style and Vocab may be specialized or technical
These individuals may have more information than the lay audience, but they need particulars to make an informed decision.
Audience--UNTRAINED OR LAY
Expects or needs background information and more description
They may benefit from graphics or visuals
They may connect with the human interest aspect of the article.
How do People Learn to Write?
You learn to write by writing.
Writing Across The Curriculum (WAC) is a project that builds writing into all levels of education.
Writing instruction can tap into writing students already do (Websites, text messaging, journals, instant messaging) to show connections between the writing they initiate versus writing assigned to them.
Writing Is A Process...
Don't reduce writing to a formula of steps to follow.
Writing is recursive (draft, revise, edit, revise, etc.)
Writers are never done honing their skills or garnering strategies as they move thru their lives.
Teachers should give guidance and options for ways of approaching the organization of the writing and the writing itself. Evaluate! Also collaborative situations teach students to learn to work effectively as a group.
Encourage students to develop routines, skills, strategies, and practices for generating, revising, and editing different kinds of texts.
Encourage the development of reflective abilities and meta-awareness about writing
Everyone Has the Capacity to Write
writing may be a gift to some, but this is not the only way to learn to write.
Writing is a skill that can be learned and honed.
Teachers make a difference in how well students learn the skill of writing. Young/new writers require support from peers, from mentors and especially teachers.
Different words that sound the same, like: See and Sea
Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text's major themes
Who wrote: "Oh my girls, however long you may live, I never can wish you a greater happiness than this!"
Last lines from Little Women by Louisa Mae Alcott
The four March sisters represent multiple ways women can walk through life. The novel and Marmee (the mother) finally decide that women must make some sacrifices for their families, in order to have the happiest life possible. This ending is ambiguous since the novel repeatedly called traditional values into question.
Present Progressive Tense
An action, in the present, that is a continuing action. Note that verbs expressing a state of mind or mental activity generally are not used in the progressive form.
A metrical foot is defined as one stressed syllable and a number of unstressed syllables (from zero to four). Stressed syllables are indicated by a line symbol. Unstressed syllables are indicated by an upside down U symbol. thee are four possible metrical feet:
1) Iambic = un, stress
2) Trochaic = stress, un
3) Anapestic = un, un, stress
4) Dactylic = stress, un, un
Line lengths tend to run up to eight feet:
One Foot = Monometer
Two Feet= Dimeter
Three Feet= Trimeter
Four Feet = Tetrameter
Five Feet- Pentameter
Six Feet= Hexameter
Seven Feet = Septameter
Eight Feet = Octameter
Metrical Feet -- IAMBIC
unstressed, unstressed, stressed
stressed, unstressed, unstressed
During the mid-19th century in New England, several writers and intellectuals worked together to write, translate works, and publish and became known as transcendentalists. Their philosophy focused on protesting the Puritan ethic and materialism. They valued individualism, freedom, experimentation, and spirituality.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorn, Henry David Thoreau, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Oliver Wendall Holmes
a story in which people (or things or actions) represent an idea or a generalization about life. Allegories usually have a strong lesson or moral.
The repetition of initial consonant sounds: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers... or She sells seashells by the seashore..
a reference to a familiar person, place, thing or event: Don Juan, brave new world, Everyman, Machiavellian, utopia..
a comparison of objects or ideas that appear to be different but are alike in some important way
Meter that is composed of feet that are short-short-long, or unaccented-unaccented- accented. Usually used in light or whimsical poetry, such as a limerick.
a brief story that illustrates or makes a point
A wise saying
Usually short and written
A turn from the general audience to address a specific group of persons (or a personified abstraction) who is present or absent.
Hamlet turned to the audience and spoke directly to one woman about this father's death.
A repetition of the same sound in words close to one another: white stripes
often occurring in iambic pentameter
a break in the rhythm of language, particularly a natural pause in a line of verse, marked in prosody by a double vertical line (")
a method an author uses to let readers know more about the characters and their personal traits
an expression that has been used so often that it loses its expressive power:
-dead as a doornail
-I'm so hungry I could eat a horse
-many hands make light work
Repetition of the FINAL CONSONANT sound in words containing DIFFERENT VOWELS.
Example: Stroke of Luck
Here, K is the final consonant sound in both words, but they have different vowels. :)
aka run-on line in poetry
-Occurs when one line ends and continues onto the next line to complete the meaning:
Ex: My life has been the poem I would
but I could not both live and utter it.
A philosophy that values human freedom and personal responsibility.
Jean-Paul Sartre, Soren Kekegaard (father of E), Albert Camus, Freidrick Nietzche, Franz Kafka, Simone de Beauvoir
a literary device in which the author jumps back in time in the chronology of a narrative
a literary technique in which the author gives hints or clues about what is to come at some point later in the story
verse that contains an irregular metrical pattern and line length.
aka vers libre
a category of literature defined by its style, form, and content
a pair of lines of poetic verse written in iambic pentameter
the flaw that leads to the downfall of a tragic hero.
comes from the Greek "hybris" which means excessive pride.
an exaggeration for emphasis or rhetorical effect.
Ex: He was so hungry, he ate that whole cornfield for lunch, stalks and all.
rhyme that occurs within a line of verse
the use of a word or phrase to mean the exact opposite of its literal or expected meaning.
There are three kinds:
1) Dramatic: we see character's errors, but character doesn't
2) Verbal: Writer says one thing, but means another
3) Situation: the purpose of a particular action differs greatly from the result.
a type of pun, or play on words, that results when two words become mixed up in the speaker's mind:
-Don't put the horse before the cart..
a figure of speech in which a comparison is IMPLIED but not stated as such:
-this winter is a bear
-you are what you eat
a rhythmical pattern in verse that is made up of stressed and unstressed syllables
the feeling a text evokes in the READER, such as sadness, tranquility or elation
a moral is a lesson that a work of literature is teaching
the telling of a story
a phrase that consists of two contradictory terms:
a contradictory statement that makes sense
-man learns from history that man learns nothing from history
a literary device in which animals, ideas, and things are represented as having human traits
-my teddybear gave me a hug today
the repetition of a line or phrase of a poem at regular intervals, particularly at the end of each stanza. the author uses repetition of a word, phrase or idea for emphasis or rhythmic effect
the regular or random occurrence of sound in poetry
how the author uses words, phrase, and sentences to form ideas.
a person, place, thing, or event used to represent something else, such as the white flag represents surrender
The overall feeling created by an author's choice of words
a metric line of poetry. A verse is named based on the kind and number of feet comprising it
distinctive features of a person's speech and speech patterns
A stanza is a division of poetry named for the number of lines it contains:
couplet-two line stanza
seslet- six line
septet- seven line
octave - eight line
a short poem, often written by an anonymous author, comprised of short verses intended to be sung or recited.
the main section of a long poem
a poem that is a mournful lament for the dead.
Shakespeare's "Elegy" from Cymbeline
Robert Lowis Stevenson's "Reqriem"
Alfred Lord Tennyson's "In Memoriam"
A long narrative poem detailing a hero's deeds.
Homer- The Iliad, The Odyssey
Virgil- The Aenieid
Miguel Cervantes- Don Quixotle
Tolstoy- War and Peace
Haiku expresses a single thought
a humorous verse form of five anapestic (un, un, stress) lines with a rhyme scheme of aabba
a short poem about personal feelings and emotions
a 14 line poem
usually written in iambic pentameter, with a varied rhyme scheme
Two main types:
1) Petrarchan (or Italian) and
2) Shakespearean (or English).
A Petrarchan sonnet opens with an octave that states a proposition and ends with a sestet that states the solution.
A Shakespearean includes 3 quatrains and a couplet
a short story or folktale that contains a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. Aesop's Fables: The Country Mouse and the Town Mouse, and the Tortoise and The Hare are examples
A narrative that is made up of fantastic characters and creatures, such as witches, goblins, and fairies, and usually begins with ONCE UPON A TIME
A genre that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting.
Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings
C.S. Lewis' The Chronicles of Narnia
Wm Morris' The Well at the World's End
a narrative form such as an epic, legend, myth, song, poem, or fable, that has been retold within a culture for generations.
Viginia Hamilton: The People Could Fly
Alvin Schwartz: And the Green Grass Grew All Around: Folk Poetry from Everyone.
a narrative technique in which the main story is comprised primarily for the purpose of organizing a set of shorter stories, each of which is a story within a story.
Emily Bronte--Wuthering Heights
Fiction that is intended to frighten, unsettle, or scare the reader. Often overlaps with fantasy and science fiction.
Bradbury's Something Wicked This Way Comes
King's the Shining
a narrative about human actions that is perceived by both the teller and the listeners to have taken place within human history and that possesses certain qualities that give the tale the appearance of truth or reality.
Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
A suspenseful story that deals with a puzzling crime
Edgar Allan Poe's The Murder in Rue Morgue
Charles Dickens' The Mystery of Edwin Drood
Narrative fiction that involves gods and heroes or has a theme that expresses a culture's ideology. There are myths from all around the world.
Greek myths: Zeus and the Olympians, Achilles, and The Trojan War
Roman myths: Hercules, Apollo, Venus
an extended fictional prose narrative
a short narrative (50 to 100 pages or so),
George Orwell's Animal Farm
Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis
a text or performance that imitates and mocks an author or work
A novel comprised of idealized events far removed from everyday life. This genre includes the subgenres: gothic romance and medieval romance.
Mary Shelly's Frankenstein
Shakespeare's Trolus and Cressida
literature that makes fun of social conventions or conditions, usually to evoke change
fiction that deals with the current or future development of technological advances.
Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five
George Orwell's 1984
Aldous Huley's Brave New World
Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451
a brief fictional prose narrative .
Shirley Jackson's the Lottery
Washington Irvings' Rip Van Winkle
P.H. Lawrence's The Horse Dealer's Daughter
Arthur Conan Doyle's Hound of the Baskervilles
Dorothy Parker's Big Blend
literature, often drama, ending in a catastrophic event for the protagonists after he or she faces several problems or conflicts
a novel set in the western US, featuring the experiences of cowboys and frontiersmen.
Zane Grey's Riders of the Purple Sage & Trail Driver
Larry McMurtry's Lonesome Dove
Conrad Richter's The Sea of Grass
Own Wister's The Virginian
a person's account of his or her own life.
a story about a person's life written by another person.
letter, diary, journal
an expository piece written with eloquence that becomes a part of the recognize literature of an era. Documents often reveal historical facts, the social mores of the times, and the thoughts and personality of the author. Some have recorded and influenced history.
The Bible, the Koran, the Constitution
a document organized in paragraph form that can be long or short and can be in the form of a letter, dialogue, or discussion.
George Orwell's Politics and the English Language
Ralph Waldo Emerson's the American Scholar
Alexander Pope's Moral Essays
Classical Period of Literature--Homer or Heroic Period
Greek legends passed along orally, warrior princesses, fierce pirates, etc.
Homer's Iliad and Odyssey
Sophocles' Oedipus Rex
Beowulf is the oldest surviving epic poem in the English language and the earliest piece of vernacular European literature. It was written in Old English, the language of the Saxons. Originally untitled, in the 19th century the poem began to be called by the name of its Scandinavian hero, whose adventures are its primary focus. Historical elements run through the poem, yet both the hero and the story are fiction.
Beowulf is a prince of the Geats of southern Sweden who comes to Denmark to help King Hrothgar rid his fabulous hall, Heorot, of a terrible monster known as Grendel. The hero mortally wounds the creature, who flees the hall to die in its lair. The next night, Grendel's mother comes to Heorot to avenge her offspring and kills one of Hrothgar's men. Beowulf tracks her down and kills her, then returns to Heorot where he receives great honors and gifts before returning home.
After ruling the Geats for half a century in peace, Beowulf must face a dragon who threatens his land. Unlike his earlier battles, this confrontation is terrible and deadly. He is deserted by all his retainers except his kinsman Wiglaf, and though he defeats the dragon he is mortally wounded. His funeral and a lament end the poem.
Classical Period of Lit--Classical Green Period
Gorgias, Aesop, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Euripides, Sophocles
Golden age of Greece
Plato's The Republic
Classical Period of Lit--Classical Roman Period
200 BCE - 455 CE
Rome conquers Greece
Playwrights are Plautus and Terence
Writers are Ovid Horace and Virgil
Philosophers are Aurelius and Lucretrus
Cicero's Letters to Atticus
Virgil's The Aeneid
Classical Period of Lit--Patristic Period
70 CE to 455 CE
Early Christian writings appear.
Augustone, Tertullain, Cyprian, Ambrose, and Jerome
Classical Period of Lit--generally
this lit is distinctive for its balance, order and reasonableness. It is known for its economy of words, direct expression, subtlety of thought, and attention to form.
Greek oratory was perfected during this time.
This period was so popular that during the Renaissance, a neoclassical movement began where authors brought back these classics
The Renaissance/Reformation Period of Literature
The lit of this period constituted a response to the supremacy of the church. The Renaissance authors were responding to the church's appeals and to tradition over reason. While the Reformation authors were responding to the church's insistence on its won authority over that of scripture. During this time, lit flourished primarily in Italy, France, Spain and England. Thanks to the invention of the printing press (15th cent. Germany), and the Early Modern rise of the middle class (which had time and wealth to partake in literacy), literature spread more quickly and to a wider audience than ever before.
The R/R Period of Lit--Elizabethan Period
A flourishing period of lit, particularly drama. The Sonnet form of poetry was all the rage. Sonnets are poems about love.
Shakespeare, Marlowe, Kyd, Sidney
has only one independent clause, and it has NO dependent clauses.It can contain one or more phrases.
A Complex Sentence
has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
Ex: When you pass the Praxis II test (dependent clause), you'll enjoy a career in teaching (independent clause). You will get a teaching job (independent clause), even though it will be challenging (dependent clause).
A Compound/Complex Sentence
two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
Ex: I just earned my teaching degree (independent clause), and I plan to get a teaching job (independent clause) because I need a career (dependent clause)
Identifying Independent and Dependent Clauses
Independent = subject, verb, complete thought
Dependent = subject, verb, incomplete thought.
So Independent could be a sentence on its own, while dependent could not, as it would be a fragment.
Dependent is often marked by words:
after, although, as, as it, because, before, even it, eventhough, if, in order to, since, though, unless, when...
names a thing that is tangible. they are either proper or common
Ex: dog, Campus Cinema, football
names an idea, condition or feeling (something not concrete, not tangible). Can be either common or proper
Ex: ideals, justice, Americana
name a group or unit
Ex: gaggle, herd, community
Gender of Nouns--Neuter
window, shrub, door, college, car.
Not masculine (father, son), or feminine (mother, daughter).
Gender of Nouns-- Indefinite
Not masculine or feminine because role can be held by either a male or a female
Organization of a Writing Passage
Different ways a writing passage can be organized are:
illustration (topic sentence followed by details)
climax (details first, then topic sentence)
location (describe person, place or thing)
cause and effect
a metaphor (a comparison of two unlike things) used throughout a work or over a series of lines in prose or poetry
Appeal to Authority
a type of argument in logic in which an expert or knowledgeable other is cited for the purpose of strengthening the argument
Types of Discourse
Types of Discourse--Creative
Creative writing includes thoughts, feelings with imagination and creativity
Types of Discourse--Expository
Expository writing seeks to explain or describe
Types of Discourse--Persuasive
Persuasive writing seeks to convince
Types of Discourse--Argument
Argument writing seeks to debate/argue a topic in a logical way
1) Analogies (compare relationships)
2) Extended Metaphors (metaphor used throughout story)
3) Appeal to Authority (use expert)
4) Appeal to Emotion (fear, pity, security, flattery)
point of view
sarcasm (use of positive feedback or cutting wit to mock someone)
counterpoints (contrasting ideas to communicate message)
praise (positive message to influence)
Presentation Strategies in the Rhetoric Process
-Performing a speech, plays, videos, reader's theater
-speech, debate, power point presentation
-creating booklets, brochures, family scrapbooks, or personal websites
-publishing a school newspaper, student magazine, or portfolio of work
-publication in literary magazines for young adults, newspapers, contests, etc.
sayings that you take figuratively
Ex: You are driving me up a wall.
Words or phrases that mean something different from the literal meanings of the words.
study of the origin of words and the way in which their meanings have changed throughout history
A word that is related in origin to another word, such as English "brother" and German "Bruder". Words that have a common etymological origin. Words that look similar and have the same origin in two languages.
parts added to the beginning (prefix) or end (suffix) of a root word to create new words.
Identification, analysis, and description of the structure of words
specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language.
A method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols.
The practice or study of correct spelling according to established usage.
The study of letters and how they are used to express sounds and form words.
A stanza of four lines, usually with the following rhyme pattern:
when a word takes on a new syntactic function. For example, the word was a noun, now it is used as a verb. Shakespeare did this a lot.
A group of French poets (and others) who react against the blaiseness... not a word... of realism.
Experimented with new poetic forms (more free verse and the prose poem)
They influenced modern poetry
Attempts to portray life honestly, without sensationalism, exaggeration, or melodrama.
Characters and plots are taken largely from the middle class for middle class readers.
Ordinary , contemporary life.
When realism isn't enough, this period describes social conditions, heredity, and environment as an inescapable force in shaping human character
Late 19th Cent. movement that believed in art as an end to itself.
Rejecting the idea that art had to set political or a high moral example.
Ex: Oscar Wilde
Enlightenment and Neoclassical Periods of Lit
Enlightenment Period of lit
An intellectual movement in France that emphasized the importance of reason, progress, and liberty. The age of Reason brings in the popularity of non-fiction and essays, as well as philosophy.
Neoclassical Period of Lit
Like the Enlightenment, this period rediscovered the classics and used them to emphasize balance, restraint, order and Natural Law. The Parody, the Satire, and non-fiction memoir essay is all the rage. The works of John Dryden, Samual Johnson, Alexander Pope, and Johnathan Swift are most popular.
Neoclassical Period--Age of Johnson
At tail end of Enlightenment/Neoclassical. America Colonial Period with Benjamin Franklin, Jefferson, Paine.
Post - Modern Period of Literature
1945 and onwards
Postmodern authors will often treat very serious subjects -- WWII, The Cold War, Conspiracy Theories -- from a position of distance and disconnect, and will choose to depict their histories ironically and humorously
Modern Period of Literature
A literary and artistic movement that radically breaks with traditional modes of Western art, thought, and morality.
Major Themes: Isolation, Alienation, Subjectivity, and Self-Referentiality
Lots of "stream of consciousness" writing. Here the writer isn't looking outside of him, he is looking inside to his brain.
The Lost Generation of Writers is during this time
T.S. Eliot's The Wasteland
The Lost Generation
During WWI, several American artists chose to live abroad to pursue their creative impulses.
Victorian Period of Literature
Named for the reign of Queen Victoria
This lit expressed the fusion of pure romantic to gross realism. Tend to be idealized portraits of difficult lives in which hard work, perserverance, love and luck win out in the end. Usually, there is a central moral lesson.
Scientific discoveries impacted this age of literature.
Industrialism: Reform movements like emancipation, child labor, women's rights, and evolution. Lit tended to come closer to daily life which reflects its practical problems and interests. Lit was a powerful tool for human progress.
Brontee Sisters, Dickens, Kipling, Wilkie Collins, Browning
Romantic Period of Lit
Reaction against reason and the Neoclassical/Enlightenment periods. It was a shift from faith in REASON (Enlightenment) to faith in the SENSES, feelings, and imagination. These writers cared about the individual, intuition, and imagination. It celebrated nature, spontaneity, imagination, and subjectivity. Lots of women writers. The use of "local color" was advanced during this time.
The Ode comes back into favor.
Writers: Jane Austen, Mary Shelly
Poets: Byron, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Shelly, Keats
Gothic Period of Lit
Overlapped Romantic, Englightenment, and Neoclassical.
A style of lit that focuses on tone, mood and mysterious brooding settings. Characters succumb to base desires, temptations, and corruption.
Medieval Period of Lit
428-1066 Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Period
1066-1450 Middle English Period
1200-1485 Late or "High" Medieval Period
After the fall of Rome, Medieval Lit focuses on Christianity (since the centers of learning were located in the church and in monasteries). Since news was difficult to come by, since people didn't move, the BALLAD form, the EPIC form and the CHRISTIAN PAGEANT or dramatic form were created. There is a great focus on the difference btw men and women and their relationship with God.
The allegory and Parable are popular literary forms and devices
-value of courtly love, code of chivalry.
The emerging merchant class expressed their points of view in ballads. A ballad is a song or songlike poem that tells a story.
British Literature Periods
450-1066 Old English Beowulf
1066-1550 Middle English Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
1550-1625 Elizabethan Shakespeare's MacBeth Hamlet
1625-1660 Puritan Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress
1660-1780 Neoclassical Dryden's The Conquest of Granada
1780-1840 Romantic Keat's Lamia and Isabella
Austin's Pride and Prejudice
1840-1900 Victorian Dickens' Great Expectations
1900-1945 Modernism Yeat's In the Seven Woods
Remarques' All Quiet on the Western Front
1945- Post-Modernism Nietzches' The Antichrist
Elliot's The wasteland
American Literature Periods
1630-1760 Colonial Williams & Hooker's Bay Psalm Book
Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanack
1760-1787 Revolutionary Declaration of Independence
Brown's The Power of Sympathy
1828-1836 Nationalist Coopers' Leatherstocking Tales
1830-1860 American Renaissance Dickenson's poems
Melville's Moby Dick
Thoreau's Walden Pond
1900-1945 Moden Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Fin
London's White Fang & The Call of the Wild
Eliot's The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
Eliot's The Wasteland
1945- Contemporary Miller's The Crucible
Miller's Death of a Salesman
Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye
Updike's Rabbit and Run
Fostering Reading Appreciation & Motivation to Learn
-using trade books, electronic devices/texts & internet
-using nonprint materials such as film, music, art and advertisements
-creating authentic literacy experiences
-connecting students' prior knowledge and interests w/texts
-reading aloud excerpts to students
-selecting quality texts and other lesson materials
-linking vocab with texts themes or concepts
-providing time to read and discuss quality texts
-teaching students the role of "word finder" in a lit circle
-teaching students structural cues such as common prefixes, suffixes, and roots
-teaching students how to effectively use context cues to identify the meanings of words and phrases
-using graphic organizers to help students see relationships among vocab words.
Teaching Reading Comprehension
1) Modeling: Teachers and capable peers should model their comprehension processes in either oral or written form. The teacher thinks or talks aloud to share her thought process while reading.
2) Questioning: Teacher's should use questions and teach students to ask questions at a variety of levels. Use Bloom's to help construct the questions.
3) Scaffolding: Involves and adult or a more capable peer providing structural supports to a student in a learning situation. Might take the form of a teacher reading aloud a portion of the text and then asking the student to repeat the same sentence.
4) Activating Prior Knowledge
5)Identifying Text Structures: Problem/Solution, Compare/Contrast, Argument, Analysis
-identify important info
-predicting and verifying
-summarizing and note-taking
-identifying cause and effect
-visualizing and thinking aloud
7) Metacognition: ability to think and regulate own thinking.
Study Strategies and Reading to Learn
-Double-entry pages (notes on left, reflections on right)
-SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review)
-concept map, matrix, venn diagram, cause/effect, etc.
4) anticipation guides
1) Character -- person or being in a narrative
-Antagonist (opposes or competes with main character)
-Protagonist (main character)
2) Conflict -- opposing elements or characters in a plot:
-person v person
-person v society (school, laws, norms)
-person v self (what do I do?)
-person v nature (natural disasters)
-person v fate (God) (Uncontrollable problem)
3) Denouement -- outcome/resolution of plot in a story
4) Plot-- the structure of a work of lit; the sequence of events
5) Setting -- the time and place in which story occurs
Outcome/Resolution of plot in a story
Assessing Student Writing-- Peer Review
students exchange papers and review one another's work
Assessing Student Writing--Portfolios
completed over a period of time
beneficial to both student and teacher
shows student's progress
also helpful at parent teacher conferences
Assessing Student Writing--Holistic Scoring
Each piece is regarded as a unit and receives a single score based upon the total quality of the essay. The premise of Hollistic Scoring is that the overall effect of an essay is a combination of several elements, including organization, sentence structure, mechanics, and word choice. Scored on a point system 1-6
Assessing Student Writing--Scoring Rubrics
A predefined scheme for scoring. Very helpful in assessing quality. Helps eliminate the subjectivity of the scorers and -- when shared with the class -- enables the students to focus on the goals of the assignment as they work.
Assessing Student Writing--Self-Assessment
Helps students to set realistic goals, monitor their own learning and evaluate their performance. Keeping a journal is excellent for this.
Assessing Student Writing -- Conferencing
a personal conference with the student may have more impact on the student than handing the student a written evaluation. Builds rapport.
The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald
A highly specific portrait of American society during the Roaring Twenties. Gatsby claws his way from rags to riches, only to find that his wealth cannot afford him the privileges enjoyed by those born into the upper class. The central character is Jay Gatsby, a wealthy New Yorker of indeterminate occupation. Gatsby is primarily known for the lavish parties he throws each weekend at his ostentatious Gothic mansion in West Egg. He is suspected of being involved in illegal bootlegging and other underworld activities.
The narrator, Nick Carraway, is Gatsby's neighbor in West Egg. Nick is a young man from a prominent Midwestern family. Educated at Yale, he has come to New York to enter the bond business. In some sense, the novel is Nick's memoir, his unique view of the events of the summer of 1922; as such, his impressions and observations necessarily color the narrative as a whole. For the most part, he plays only a peripheral role in the events of the novel; he prefers to remain a passive observer.
Maya Angelou's I know Why a Caged Bird Sings
shows prejudice, racism, abandonment, etc.
Ray Bradbury's Farenheit 451
Guy Montag is a fireman who burns books in a futuristic American city. In Montag's world, firemen start fires rather than putting them out. The people in this society do not read books, enjoy nature, spend time by themselves, think independently, or have meaningful conversations. Instead, they drive very fast, watch excessive amounts of television on wall-size sets, and listen to the radio on "Seashell Radio" sets attached to their ears.
Robert Frost: The Road Not Taken
The speaker stands in the woods, considering a fork in the road. Both ways are equally worn and equally overlaid with un-trodden leaves. The speaker chooses one, telling himself that he will take the other another day. Yet he knows it is unlikely that he will have the opportunity to do so. And he admits that someday in the future he will recreate the scene with a slight twist: He will claim that he took the less-traveled road.
"The Road Not Taken" consists of four stanzas of five lines. The rhyme scheme is ABAAB; the rhymes are strict and masculine, with the notable exception of the last line (we do not usually stress the -ence of difference). There are four stressed syllables per line, varying on an iambic tetrameter base.
Robert Frost: Stopping By the Woods On a Snowy Evening
On the surface, this poem is simplicity itself. The speaker is stopping by some woods on a snowy evening. He or she takes in the lovely scene in near-silence, is tempted to stay longer, but acknowledges the pull of obligations and the considerable distance yet to be traveled before he or she can rest for the night.
The poem consists of four (almost) identically constructed stanzas. Each line is iambic, with four stressed syllables:
Within the four lines of each stanza, the first, second, and fourth lines rhyme. The third line does not, but it sets up the rhymes for the next stanza. For example, in the third stanza, queer, near, and year all rhyme, but lake rhymes with shake, mistake, and flake in the following stanza.
The notable exception to this pattern comes in the final stanza, where the third line rhymes with the previous two and is repeated as the fourth line.
Do not be fooled by the simple words and the easiness of the rhymes; this is a very difficult form to achieve in English without debilitating a poem's content with forced rhymes.
Stephen Crane: The Red Badge of Courage
Crane focused on the individual psychology of a single soldier. Character starts off thinking he will become a hero but while in war he acts like a coward, hen as a part of a team, he fights-- he becomes brave. He now no longer needs a Red Badge of Courage. The novel ends with a declaration of Henry's development into a man of honor and courage. Qualities that Henry now sees quite differently from before when he was an inexperienced soldier. He no longer feels he needs to return home 'on his shield' he doesn't need a red badge of courage to show who he is, he knows he is brave, and that is enough.
S. E. Hinton: The Outsiders
The Outsiders, first published in 1967, tells the story of class conflict between the greasers, a group of low-class youths, and the Socs (short for Socials), a group of privileged rich kids who live on the wealthy West Side of town. The novel broke ground in the genre of Young Adult fiction, transcending established boundaries in its portrayal of violence, class conflict, and prejudice.
Daniel Defoe: Robinson Crusoe
written in mid-1600s
Character craves travel. he ends up on an island. Various adventures happen. He has slaves at various points.
Zora Neale Hurston: Their Eyes Were Watching God
Their Eyes Were Watching God was published in 1937, long after the heyday of the Harlem Renaissance. The literature of the 1920s, a period of postwar prosperity, was marked by a sense of freedom and experimentation, but the 1930s brought the Depression and an end to the cultural openness that had allowed the Harlem Renaissance to flourish. As the Depression worsened, political tension increased within the United States; cultural production came to be dominated by "social realism," a gritty, political style associated with left-wing radicalism. The movement's proponents felt that art should be primarily political and expose social injustice in the world. This new crop of writers and artists dismissed much of the Harlem Renaissance as bourgeois, devoid of important political content and thus devoid of any artistic merit. The influential and highly political black novelist Richard Wright, then an ardent Communist, wrote a scathing review of Their Eyes Were Watching God upon its publication, claiming that it was not "serious fiction" and that it "carries no theme, no message, no thought."
John Keats: Ode To A Nightingale
The speaker opens with a declaration of his own heartache. He feels numb, as though he had taken a drug only a moment ago. He is addressing a nightingale he hears singing somewhere in the forest and says that his "drowsy numbness" is not from envy of the nightingale's happiness, but rather from sharing it too completely; he is "too happy" that the nightingale sings the music of summer from amid some unseen plot of green trees and shadows.
Graveyard School of Poets
Refers to a group of 18th Century poets and writers, mostly male, whose writings frequently touched on themes of death, mortality, religion, and melancholy. Often elegiac in tone (and title) — an elegy is, by the 18th Century, simply a poem in lament of a death — these poems make frequent use of funereal or gloomy imagery, though their purpose was rarely sensationalist. Most of the Graveyard School poets were very Christian writers — many were in fact clergymen — who used the imagery of night, death, and gloom in spiritual contemplations of human mortality and our relation to the divine.
T.S. Eliot: The Waste Land
I. The Burial of the Dead
April is the cruellest month, breeding
Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing
Memory and desire, stirring
Dull roots with spring rain.
His early works, like "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and The Waste Land, draw on a wide range of cultural reference to depict a modern world that is in ruins yet somehow beautiful and deeply meaningful. Eliot uses techniques like pastiche and juxtaposition to make his points without having to argue them explicitly.
Alexander Pope: The rape of Lock
The Rape of the Lock is a humorous indictment of the vanities and idleness of 18th-century high society. Basing his poem on a real incident among families of his acquaintance, Pope intended his verses to cool hot tempers and to encourage his friends to laugh at their own folly.
The poem is perhaps the most outstanding example in the English language of the genre of mock-epic.
Epics were big in England, this mocked the Epic by making fun of a certain class of people.
The Cavalier Poets
Supported King Charles I
Polished, lyrical, erotically charged poems of gallantry and courtship.
Ben Jonson, Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Thomas Carew and Sir John Suckling
Cuneiform script or is one of the earliest known systems of writing, distinguished by its "wedge-shaped" marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus. ...
the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses
For a one-syllable word simply add the suffix -est to the word. Often times it is necessary to double the final consonant.
Big - Biggest
If the one syllable word ends with an "e" you only need to add an -st. An example is:
If a two-syllable word ends with a "y" then change the "y" to "I" and add -est.
Pretty - prettiest
Words that contain two or three syllables are preceded by the words most or least. An example would be most handsome or least perfect.
conjunction that introduces a subordinate clause, e.g., although, because, since
Past Perfect Tense
past perfect: a perfective tense used to express action completed in the past; "`I had finished' is an example of the past perfect"
•Cramming for tests is not a good study strategy. [gerund phrase as subject]
•John enjoyed swimming in the lake after dark. [gerund phrase as object]
•I'm really not interested in studying biochemistry for the rest of my life. [gerund phrase as object of the preposition in ]
Present participles, verbals ending in -ing, and past participles, verbals that end in -ed (for regular verbs) or other forms (for irregular verbs), are combined with complements and modifiers and become part of important phrasal structures. Participial phrases always act as adjectives. When they begin a sentence, they are often set off by a comma (as an introductory modifier); otherwise, participial phrases will be set off by commas if they are parenthetical elements.
•The stone steps, having been worn down by generations of students, needed to be replaced. [modifies "steps"]
•Working around the clock, the firefighters finally put out the last of the California brush fires. [modifies "firefighters"]
•The pond, frozen over since early December, is now safe for ice-skating. [modifies "pond"]
the use of many words where fewer would do, esp. in a deliberate attempt to be vague or evasive.
the state of being incongruous or out of keeping.
"the incongruity of his fleshy face and skinny body disturbed her"
An underused tool, the appositive phrase is always set apart from the rest of the sentence by commas. Although it most often appears as an interruption in the middle of a sentence, an appositive phrase can also be found at the beginning or end of a sentence as well. Be careful, because commas can separate other kinds of phrases and clauses, too. You will know you are looking at an appositive phrase if it can be removed from the sentence and still leave you with a complete sentence.
what is the best definition of the meaning of a word
According to current linguistic theories, the word's use in a particular situation is its best definition.
acquisition of language by children
a series of imitative stages occurring in a rough, overlapping sequence, including possible regressions.
Christopher Paul Curtis
Received both the Newberry Medal and the Coretta Scott King Award for the same book, but he has never received the Margaret A. Edwards Award
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