Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
perkins spa 3123 exam 2
Terms in this set (48)
the ability of a child to compensate for acoustic differences due to different speakers of the same vowel is
what were the results of the peter eimas and colleagues 1971 study involving young infants using their sucking rate as a behavioral indicator of what sounds they could distinguish?
-demonstrated evidence of categorical perception
-+20 and +40 VOT pairs
what did Dr. Kuhls 1979 experiment involving the head turning paradigm in young children demonstrate?
according to dr. werker the stage before a particular native language has influenced perception is known as the
phonetic or universal mode of speech perception
according to dr. werker the speech processing mode of perception that has adapted to the influence of a particular language is known as ___ speech perception. and it occurs at ____ age
-phonemic mode of speech perception (language specific)
according to ryalls (1996) text, which sound contrasts most likely to cause difficulty in older persons with presbycusis?
- place of articulation
- voiced versus voiceless
speakers of mandarin and japanese make a phonemic distinction between liquids /r/ and /l/
what is the term used to describe the changing or adaptable nature of a developing brain?
a logarithmic unit used to meaure sound pressure
why is the theory called motor theory?
-listener makes use of the mototr commands that would be sent to his/her articulators
-speech recognition is therefore a process of identifying the articulatory gestures that were used to produce the speech signal
-stresses the link between perception of speech and the production of speech
what was one of the ways that motor theory was tested?
- EMG studies
does evidence from aphasia seem to support or go against motor theory?
-individuals with brocas aphasia and apraxia still have intact comprehension
-individuals with wernickes aphasia have the poorer comprehension, yet motor speech output remains intact
evidence in support of motor theory
- speakers of foreign languages move their lips when trying to understand
-phoneticians technique of attempting to produce the phoneme so that they can transcribe it more reliably
-individuals with hearing impairments can "read" speech from observing facial gestures
- the mcgurk effect
what is duplex perception
-shows that listeners can hear stimuli as both a speech event and a nonspeech sound at the same time
- this applies to motor theory by showing the ability to percieve both speech and nonspeech sounds at the same time suggests we have "modules" in the brain for processing both
define phonemes in terms of the articulatory gestures required to produce: voicing, place and manner
What was particular about the feature system that jakobson and colleagues were tyring to develop?
the features they developed were supposed to be universal that is, for any spoken language of the world. they were strictly acoustic in nature, and they were binary and minimal. they were these characteristics:
did early EMG studies tend to support or contradict motor theory?
have phonetic feature detectors for speech been isolated in the human brain?
what would be the advantage of having phonetic feature detectors?
would be able to rapidly and reliably percieve certain phonetic features in the rapid and highly overlapping acoustic signal of speech
what kind of speech sounds are we considering with the theory of acoustic invariance?
how does acoustic invariance describe the spectrum for the velar place of articulation?
how does acoustic invariance describe the spectrum for the bilabial and alveolar places of articulation?
approximately how accurate were blumstein and stevens (1979) in classifying speech data for place of articulation of initial stop consonants?
85% accurate for initialstop consonants
why is it important to consider the acoustic information provided in the burst? ( in other words, what is the advantage of the spectral information from this particular point in time?)
-the articulators are still near the place of constriction
-acoustic info here therefore best tells us place of articulation
dichotic listening test
- the individual recieves more auditory stimuli that s/he can consciously handle
Which part of the brain will process the incoming stimuli?
-this is determined by which ear the individual selects as perceiving the most information
-in most results, the tendency is for more accurate reporting of verbal stimuli in the right ear
-this correlates to left hemisphere dominance for speech and language processing
in dichotic listening experiments, there appears to be a right ear advantage is at least ______ of individuals
what is meant by "auditory stimuli" in dichotic listening tasks?
-mostly in reference to speech sounds: phonemes, syllables, or whole words
vowels in dichotic listening
- both of the ears can perform the type of processing necessary for vowel perception.
-no dichotic advantage for vowel sounds
consonants in dichotic listening
-seems to be dependant on the specialized procesing of the left hemisphere, especially for stop consonants.
-dichotic advantage: usually right ear/ left hemisphere
does the dichotic effect happen in real life?
- in short, no. it is rare for dichotic effect to occur in real life situations.
-we rely on slight differences in sound presentation to each ear in order to localize sound. specifically:
intensity(loudness), timing (delay), fundamental frequency
what accounts for our the "right ear advantage" that most individuals experience in a dichotic listening task?
in most individuals, the left hemisphere is dominant for processing speech and language (in at least 95% of individuals)
is there a right ear advantage for all types of sounds? what about music? airplanes? birds chirping?
-no. for most, the REA seem to be exclusive to speech sounds (phonemes, syllables, and short words.)
- left ear advantage for processing music and environmental sounds
the difference in speech performance between the two ears
stronger contralateral connection to left hemisphere and left hemisphere superior at processing verbal stimuli
do vowels and consonats result in equal ear effects? if not, why?
consonants- significant REA
vowels- no ear advantage
what is percieved categorically?
-vowels are NOT perceived categorically listeners can hear the gradual changes in vowels.
How is the processing of music different from that of speech?
music typically results in a LEFT ear/ Right hemisphere advantage in non musically-sophisticated listeners
is there a difference between amateur and expert musicians?
YES, for musically-sophisticated expert listeners, music typically results in a RIGHT-ear/ LEFT-hemisphere advantage
the exclusive use of information in the acoustic signal is what kind of processing?
what type of processing is being used when sequencing syllables into words?
top down processing
is identifying whether a particular sound sequence represents a word or not in a particular language an example of bottom-up or top-down processing
what term refers to the fact that a listener can fill in a missing phoneme to complete a word?
what are the advantages of parallel distributed processing networks?
-they can cope with the large variation encountered in speech
-processing in one stage can occur before the previous stage is completely accomplished
-coarticulation does not present a serious obstacle
marslen-wilson and colleagues found that subjects could shadow, or repeat back speech, at latancies as short as:
why is it important to consider the acoustic information provided in the burst? in other words, what is the advantage of the spectral information from this particular point in time?
- at the very beginning, at the burst, the vocal tract is just opening from the stable position that is most characteristic of the place of articulation-i.e., bilabial, alveolar, velar
-the acoustic signal is also more invariant at this point in time. the vocal tract has not had time to move very far, so we are still not into the rapidly changing formant transitions at this point in the signal
Sets found in the same folder
Speech Perception 2 Fundamental and Form…
speech perception Auditory system review Exam 1
Speech Perception: Perception of Vowels Exam 1 Rev…
Speech Perception Cumulative Test 2
Sets with similar terms
SLHS 1301 Exam 3
speech science final learning check
Articulation Test 1 (Chapters 1 & 2)
Other Quizlet sets
Exam 2 Part 3
Iggy: Chapter 27: Assessment of the Respiratory Sy…
Industrial Wiring 2: Electrical Motor Controls for…