145 terms

Ocean Science Quiz Bowl! :)

SO THIS IS THE COMPILED QUIZLET OF ALL THE OTHER TERMS ABOVE. DO NOT USE TO STUDY. SIMPLY AS A REFERENCE.
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Terms in this set (...)

Autotrophic
(Organisms that) capture energy from the sun and require nutrients
Sponges
Aggregations of specialized cells
Sessile
Living permanently attached to the bottom or some other surface
Ostia
Tiny pores on the surface (of sponges)
Porifera
Phylum (of sponges), pore bearers
Pinacocytes
Flat outer surface cells (of sponges)
Pore cells/Porocytes
Tube-like outer surface cells (of sponges)
Collar Cells/Choanocytes
Lining of feeding chamber (of sponges)
Osculum
Large opening on the top of the sponge through which water exits
Suspension Feeders
Animals that eat food particles suspended in the water
Filter Feeders
Feeding on organisms in the water by filtering (it) through
Deposit Feeders
Eat detrius on the bottom
Spicules
Siliceous or calcareous supporting structures (of sponges)
Spongin
What the skeleton (of sponges) is made of
Hermaphrodites
Animals which have male and female gonads
Broadcast Spawning
Release of gametes into the water
Sclerosponges/Corraline Sponges
Calcium carbonate skeleton forms beneath the body of a sponge
Cnidarians/Coelenterates
Sea anemones, jellyfishes, corals
Radial Symmetry
Similar parts of the body are arranged and repeated around a central axis (eg starfish)
Oral Surface
Where the mouth is (cnidarians)
Aboral Surface
Opposite side of a cnidarian (not the mouth)
Polyp
A sac-like attached stage with the mouth and tentacles oriented upward
Medusa
Jellyfish, upside down polyp adapted for swimming
Planula (Sponge)
Cylindrical, ciliated stage consisting of two layers of cells
Epidermis
External body layer of cnidarians
Gastrodermis
Lines the gut of cnidarians
Mesoglea
Middle layer of cnidarians, gelatinous, no cells
Hydrozoans
Feathery or bushy colonies of tiny polyps
Siphonophores
Hydrozoans that form drifting colonies of polyps (Portugese Man-of-War)
Scyphozoans
Larger jellyfishes, swim with rhythmic contractions of bell, easily carried by currents
Cubuzoa
Class of scyphozoans that are particularly dangerous
Anthozoans
Class of solitary or colonial polyps that lack a medusa stage
Septa
Thin partitions in the gut of anthozoans, provide support and surface area for digestion
Sea anemones
Colorful anthozoans that often have large polyps
Corals
Colonial anthozoans, calcium carbonate skeletons, forming coral reefs
Precious Corals
Gorgonians with red or pink calcareous spicules
Black Corals
Hard, black protein skeleton
Nematocysts
A fluid filled capsule containing a thread that can be quickly ejected for feeding. Thread may be sticky or armed with spines, or a long tube, or contain toxins
Extracellular
Digestion that takes place outside of cells
Intracellular
Digestion within cells lining the gut
Nerve cells/Nerve Net
Transmits impulses in all directions
Statocysts
Small, calcareous bodies in fluid-filled chambers surrounded by sensitive hairs
Comb Jellies/Ctenophores
Group of jellyfish like animals (not real jellyfish) that cannot sting
Ciliary Combs
Long cilia fused at the base that beat in waves
Hermatypic
Reef building corals, producing calcium carbonate skeletons
Scleractinian Corals
Stony/true corals, reef building
Zooxanthellae
Symbiotic algae that help corals grow reefs (connect to coral bleaching), will not be able to build a reef without zooxanthellae
Ahermatypic
No zooxanthellae
Planula (Coral)
the free-swimming, ciliated larva of a cnidarian
Latent Heat of Evaporation
Energy required to go from liquid to gas (in water)
Evaporative Cooling
Fastest molecules evaporate, those left behind have a lower average velocity and a lower temperature
Salts
Particles of opposite electrical charge )ions)
Dissasociate
Process of dissolving salts
Solutes
Dissolved materials
Salinity
Total amount of salt dissolved in seawater, (measured in) ppt (parts per thousand)
PSU (Practical Salinity Units)
Unit of salinity derived from conductivity measurements (equivalent to ppt)
Rule of Constant Proportions
The relative amount of different materials dissolved in seawater are always the same (changed mainly by water being removed and added, not salt being removed and added)
35ppt
Average salinity of the ocean
Temperature
Varies from -2 and 30 (degrees) celcius
Temperature Profile
A graph showing temperature at different depths in a water column
Niskin Bottles
Plastic tubes on a weighted line that is lowered into the ocean to collect water samples
Bathythermographs
Measure temperature but not salinity profiles, and are disposable
Gas Exchange
Sea surface releases gases to the atmosphere, atmosphere releases gases to the sea
Carbon Dioxide Dissolved
Much more soluble than oxygen because it reacts chemically when it dissolves (therefore ocean stores a lot of co2)
Blue Light
Penetrates the ocean the deepest
Pressure Increase
Every 10 meters another 1 AMU (atmosphere of pressure)
Common Phytoplankton Species
Diatoms dinoflagellates
Pores (in diatoms)
Help reduce the weight of the floating diatom and allow diffusion of materials in and out of the cell
Setae
Two pairs of thin spines projecting from the end of diatoms (help keeping them afloat)
Flagella
Whiplike structures used for locomotion
Bioluminescent
Light-producing
Red Tides
Caused by dinoflagellates, changes water color
Macroalgae
Multicellular seaweeds
Thallus
Entire plant of rockweed
Stipes
"Stem" of algae
Holdfast
Holds the algae to the rock (making it sessile)
Diatoms
Eukaryotic, unicellular, symbiotic with zooxanthellae, cause red tides, some form chains
Dinoflagellates
Eukaryotic, unicellular, two flagella, planktonic,
Cocolithophorids
Eukaryotic, unicellular, one or two flagella, planktonic, most abbundant in the world
Coriolis Effect
Because the earth is round and rotating, anything moving over its surface turns a little rather than moving in a straight line
Northern Hemisphere (Coriolis Effect)
Things are deflected to the right
Southern Hemisphere (Coriolis Effect)
Things are deflected to the left
Trade Winds
Winds formed from the equator's heat difference , do not move straight toward the equator but bent by the Coriolis effect
Westerlies
Lie at middle latitudes and move in the opposite direction of the trade winds
Polar Easterlies
Most variable winds of all, high latitude
Currents Formed Through Wind
1) When pushed by the wind, uppermost surface layer begins to move
2) Surface current moves at an angle of 45 because of the Coriolis effect
3) Top layer pushes on layer of water below and second layer moves in a slightly different direction and slower
Ekman Spiral
Pattern created by currents formed through wind
Ekman Layer
Upper part of the water column affected by the wind
Ekman Transport
Each microlayer moves in a different direction, but as a whole the Ekman layer moves at 90 degrees from the wind direction
Gyres
Circular system of currents
Stratified
Ocean is layered with densest water on bottom and least dense at the surface
Surface Layer/Mixed Layer
100-200 meters deep, mixed by wind, waves, currents
Thermoclines
Sudden changes in temperature over small depth intervals
Intermediate Layer
1000 to 1500 meters deep
Main Thermocline
Transition zone between warm surface water and cold water
Deep/Bottom Layer
x>1500 meters, uniformly cold
Stable
Surface water floats on top of the denser water below
Downwelling
Surface water becomes more dense than water below, surface water sinks in a process called overturn
Water Mass
Volume of water
Great Ocean Conveyor
Thermohaline circulation that mixes the oceans on a timescale of 4000 years
Waves
Driven by surface currents
Trough
Lowest part of wave
Crest
Highest part of wave
Wavelength
Distance between waves
Period
Time a wave takes to go by at any given point
Fetch
Span of open water over which the wind blows
Swells
When away from the wind the waves settle
Wave Cancellation
When one crest of one wave meets the trough of another
Wave Reinforcement
When two waves add together to make a huge wave called a rogue wave
Semidiurnal Tides
High and low tides two times/day
Spring Tides
Difference between high and low tide is huge
Neap Tides
Difference between high and low tide is small
Diurnal Tides
High and low tide one time/day
Tide tables
Predict the height/time of high/low tides
Tsunamis
Deadliest waves, harbor waves, occasionally generated by earthquakes, hard to predict which earthquake will generate a tsunami
Gastropods
"Stomach foot"
Univalve
"One shell"
Operculum
A horny disc attached to the bottom of a gastropod's foot, used as a way to close itself off
Bivalves
Mollusks with a shell made out of two halves, called valves, that are hinged together at the top
Umbo
Oldest part of mollusk shell
Dioecious
Males and females are separate individuals
71%
Percentage of earth's surface covered by ocean water
Pacific Ocean
Deepest and largest ocean
Arctic Ocean
Smallest and shallowest ocean
World Ocean
Oceans are actually one great interconnected system
Southern Ocean
Continuous body of water that surrounds ANtarctica
Basalt
Oceanic crust is made of this dark mineral
Granite
Continental rocks are made of this lighter mineral
Pangaea
Single super-continent as named by Wegener
Continental Drift
Wegener's theory, early plate tectonics
Mid-Ocean Ridges
A continuous chain of submarine volcanic mountains that encircle the globe like seams on a baseball
Faults
Cracks in the earth's crust
Trenches
Deep depressions in the sea floor where oceanic crust sinks into the mantle and is destroyed (SUBDUCTION ZONES)
Magnetic Anomalies
"Stripes" patterns of magnetic bands on the sea floor from molten rock forming over time while magnetic poles reverse
Rifts
Cracks in the crust where oceanic crust is separating at mid ocean ridges
Subduction
Downward movement of a dense earth plate in a collision between two plates
Shear Boundary
When two lithospheric plates slide past each other instead of subducting, immense friction causing an earthquake
Panthalassa
Single ocean that surrounded Pangaea
Laurasia
included current-day North America and Eurasia
Gondwana
included current-day South America, Africa, Antarctica, India, Australia
Lithogenous Sediment
Derived from the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks on cotinents
Red Clay
Common kind of lithogenous sediment on the ocean open floor
Biogenous Sediment
Skeletons and shells of marine organisms
Calcareous Ooze
Biogenous sediment ade of calcium carbonate
Continental Margins
Submerged edges of the continents, consisting in order of a continental shelf, shelf break continental slope, continental rise, abyssal plain