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Amicus curiae

Friend of the court brief


Opposed ratification of the new Constitution

absentee ballot

vote by mail

adversary system

trial court system


no government


1 person rules

Articles of Confederation

First Constitution

Affirmative Action

Program to remedy past discrimination

appellate jurisdiction

hear case on appeal

Australian ballot

secret ballet

bad tendency doctrine

Gov't can stop speech if it causes violence


closed off soft money trouble

Block grants

large grants from fed gov't to states

Bill of Rights

First 10 amendments


two houses/two chambers

Budget and Impoundment Control Act

Limited president's ability to hold money from fed bureaucracy

Bill of Attainder

Legal punishment of one person is prohibited

Bush Doctrine

Use of preemptive strike


Limited donation, group money together

Campaign Finance reform

limit influence or money in elections

Civil Rights Act (1964)

ended racial discrimination in public places

criminal case

break the law, violate statute

civil case

suing for money


meeting of members of Congress or legislatures of similar characteristics

Connecticut Compromise

established bicameral legislation


someone you represent


advisory council to President, heads of all departments


President, highest ranking member in military

categorical grant

Federal grant to states for specific reason


3/5 vote to end filibuster

checks and balances

branches keep each other in check


gov't body w/ no regulatory power


economic system with free market

civil disobedience

breaking law peacefully to protect law


smaller gov't, fewer taxes, less regulation

class action suit

lawsuit representing a large group of people

closed primary

election; must be member to vote

concurrent powers

powers that both state and federal gov't have

conference committee

committee in Congress, creates one final version of bill

Congressional Budget Office

Analyzes budget for Congress
Crossover voting-vote for other party

De facto segregation

segregation by choice

de jure segregation

segregation by law

deficit spending

spending more money than we get

divided government

1 party controls White House; other holds Congress

dual federalism

two gov'ts; have separate services they provide


deter attacks


attack before they attack you

devolution revolution

process of returning power to states

dissenting opinion

opinion saying why you disagree w/ majority

double jeopardy

can't be tried for same crime if innocent

due process (procedural)

steps to government if they take away your rights

due process (substantive)

can't break laws/violate Due Process

Electoral college

method used to elect president

economic sanctions

preventing economic trade w/ other countries

eminent domain

government can take private land for the public, but must repay you


Social security, Medicare, etc.

establishment clause

gov't can't establish religion

ex post facto law

making something illegal/creating law, punishing someone then before law

excise tax

tax on luxury goods

exclusionary rule

evidence obtained illegally can't be used during trial

executive privilege

power of President to not confess to court

express powers

powers clearly written out


returning criminal to place where they committed crime


two governments

Franking privilege

3 postage stamps




delaying tactic in Senate

Fed Papers #10

Fear of factions that have own interests in mind

Fed Papters #51

Need for checks and balances

Free Exercise Clause

Freedom of religion

Front Loading

Move primary date up earlier on calender

Gun control

limits on 2nd Amendment


Redrawing congressional districts

Gender gap

difference between men and women


Audits bureaucracy after budget passes

Grand jury

large jury to see if there's enough evidence to try someone

Hatch act

Limited bureaucrats for government employees from political activity

hard money

Limited bureaucrats for government employees from political activity

hard money

Limited regulated campaign contribution


paid political speech

habeus corpus

right to have judge view evidence while in jail

honeymoon period

first 2 months for President after election from criticism

hung jury

Jury can't make unanimous decision


already had job of political position coming back for reelection


President withholds money from bureaucracy

Iron Triangle

Congressional committee, gov't agency, and special interest group


14th Amendment applied to states


court order to stop something

independent expenditures

spend money on behalf of a candidate


process from removing official from office

implied powers

powers implied/stated in Constitution

independent agency

agency protected from partisan politics


charged w/ a crime

inherent powers

not stated in Constitution, but exist

joint committee

contains both House and Senate members

John Locke

Life, liberty, and property

judicial activism

use law through court case

judicial restraint

interpret Constitution literally

judicial review

Rules of Congress and President can be deemed unconstitutional by Supreme Court

Keynesian economics

government intervenes in economy


written deformation



limited government

government that has limits

line item veto

allowed President to veto 1 part of bill; unconstitutional

laissez faire

limited or no government intervention in government

linkage institution

structure that connects people to government (like media)


trading votes


Larger gov't, more taxes, more regulations


someone who represents special interest group

marble cake federalism

services provided by both gov'ts fed and state

majority leader

leader of majority party

minority leader

leader of minority party

mass media

all forms of media


healthcare for the poor


healthcare for the elderly

natural rights philosophy

Locke; life, liberty, property rights


trade agreement between US, Mexico, and Canada

Necessary and Proper Clause

gave Congress certain powers (elastic powers)

New Deal

massive government expansion

North-South Compromise

3/5 voting for slave


Drafts federal budget

Open primary

vote for any candidate


Hire and Fire bureaucrats

original jurisdiction

power of court to hear a case first


giving gov't jobs to loyal supporters


best trading relationship w/ lowest tariffs

Party machine

local party level giving jobs based on favor

pork barrel legislation

bill law only benefits small group

primary elections

nominating elections


raising money for candidate, group, etc

pocket veto

bill sits for 10 days, Congress adjourns

political socialization

how you obtain political beliefs

poll tax

tax on voting

public campaign funding

taxpayers pay the cost of your campaign

President of the Senate

VP, person who breaks ties


contracting out gov't, service to private sector

President Pro-Tempore

temporary president of Senate, longest serving senator

prior restraint

censoring press before they print something

progressive tax

more you make, more you pay

public defender system

lawyers paid by taxpayers


belief that one or more interest should have access to the government


setting certain # of seats for someone


minimum # needed for a vote

rule of 4

Supreme Court hears case w/ 4 judges wanting to hear it


indirect democracy


states, way for voters to approve legislation


attachment to a bill


Determining new # of seats in House for each seat

realigning election

votes come back to the 2 main parties

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