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188 terms

AP GOV terms

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Amicus curiae
Friend of the court brief
AntiFederalists
Opposed ratification of the new Constitution
absentee ballot
vote by mail
adversary system
trial court system
anarchy
no government
autocracy
1 person rules
Articles of Confederation
First Constitution
Affirmative Action
Program to remedy past discrimination
appellate jurisdiction
hear case on appeal
Australian ballot
secret ballet
bad tendency doctrine
Gov't can stop speech if it causes violence
BCRA
closed off soft money trouble
Block grants
large grants from fed gov't to states
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments
bicameral
two houses/two chambers
Budget and Impoundment Control Act
Limited president's ability to hold money from fed bureaucracy
Bill of Attainder
Legal punishment of one person is prohibited
Bush Doctrine
Use of preemptive strike
Bundling
Limited donation, group money together
Campaign Finance reform
limit influence or money in elections
Civil Rights Act (1964)
ended racial discrimination in public places
criminal case
break the law, violate statute
civil case
suing for money
caucas
meeting of members of Congress or legislatures of similar characteristics
Connecticut Compromise
established bicameral legislation
constituent
someone you represent
cabinet
advisory council to President, heads of all departments
Commander-in-Chief
President, highest ranking member in military
categorical grant
Federal grant to states for specific reason
cloture
3/5 vote to end filibuster
checks and balances
branches keep each other in check
commission
gov't body w/ no regulatory power
capitalism
economic system with free market
civil disobedience
breaking law peacefully to protect law
conservative
smaller gov't, fewer taxes, less regulation
class action suit
lawsuit representing a large group of people
closed primary
election; must be member to vote
concurrent powers
powers that both state and federal gov't have
conference committee
committee in Congress, creates one final version of bill
Congressional Budget Office
Analyzes budget for Congress
Crossover voting-vote for other party
De facto segregation
segregation by choice
de jure segregation
segregation by law
deficit spending
spending more money than we get
divided government
1 party controls White House; other holds Congress
dual federalism
two gov'ts; have separate services they provide
deterrence
deter attacks
preemption
attack before they attack you
devolution revolution
process of returning power to states
dissenting opinion
opinion saying why you disagree w/ majority
double jeopardy
can't be tried for same crime if innocent
due process (procedural)
steps to government if they take away your rights
due process (substantive)
can't break laws/violate Due Process
Electoral college
method used to elect president
economic sanctions
preventing economic trade w/ other countries
eminent domain
government can take private land for the public, but must repay you
entitlements
Social security, Medicare, etc.
establishment clause
gov't can't establish religion
ex post facto law
making something illegal/creating law, punishing someone then before law
excise tax
tax on luxury goods
exclusionary rule
evidence obtained illegally can't be used during trial
executive privilege
power of President to not confess to court
express powers
powers clearly written out
extradition
returning criminal to place where they committed crime
Federalism
two governments
Franking privilege
3 postage stamps
Federalists
Pro-Constitution
Fillibuster
delaying tactic in Senate
Fed Papers #10
Fear of factions that have own interests in mind
Fed Papters #51
Need for checks and balances
Free Exercise Clause
Freedom of religion
Front Loading
Move primary date up earlier on calender
Gun control
limits on 2nd Amendment
Gerrymandering
Redrawing congressional districts
Gender gap
difference between men and women
GAO
Audits bureaucracy after budget passes
Grand jury
large jury to see if there's enough evidence to try someone
Hatch act
Limited bureaucrats for government employees from political activity
hard money
Limited bureaucrats for government employees from political activity
hard money
Limited regulated campaign contribution
honorarium
paid political speech
habeus corpus
right to have judge view evidence while in jail
honeymoon period
first 2 months for President after election from criticism
hung jury
Jury can't make unanimous decision
incumbent
already had job of political position coming back for reelection
impoundment
President withholds money from bureaucracy
Iron Triangle
Congressional committee, gov't agency, and special interest group
Incorporation
14th Amendment applied to states
injunction
court order to stop something
independent expenditures
spend money on behalf of a candidate
impeachment
process from removing official from office
implied powers
powers implied/stated in Constitution
independent agency
agency protected from partisan politics
indictment
charged w/ a crime
inherent powers
not stated in Constitution, but exist
joint committee
contains both House and Senate members
John Locke
Life, liberty, and property
judicial activism
use law through court case
judicial restraint
interpret Constitution literally
judicial review
Rules of Congress and President can be deemed unconstitutional by Supreme Court
Keynesian economics
government intervenes in economy
libel
written deformation
litigation
lawsuit
limited government
government that has limits
line item veto
allowed President to veto 1 part of bill; unconstitutional
laissez faire
limited or no government intervention in government
linkage institution
structure that connects people to government (like media)
logrolling
trading votes
Liberal
Larger gov't, more taxes, more regulations
lobbyists
someone who represents special interest group
marble cake federalism
services provided by both gov'ts fed and state
majority leader
leader of majority party
minority leader
leader of minority party
mass media
all forms of media
medicaid
healthcare for the poor
medicare
healthcare for the elderly
natural rights philosophy
Locke; life, liberty, property rights
NAFTA
trade agreement between US, Mexico, and Canada
Necessary and Proper Clause
gave Congress certain powers (elastic powers)
New Deal
massive government expansion
North-South Compromise
3/5 voting for slave
OMB
Drafts federal budget
Open primary
vote for any candidate
OPM
Hire and Fire bureaucrats
original jurisdiction
power of court to hear a case first
patronage
giving gov't jobs to loyal supporters
PNTR
best trading relationship w/ lowest tariffs
Party machine
local party level giving jobs based on favor
pork barrel legislation
bill law only benefits small group
primary elections
nominating elections
PAC
raising money for candidate, group, etc
pocket veto
bill sits for 10 days, Congress adjourns
political socialization
how you obtain political beliefs
poll tax
tax on voting
public campaign funding
taxpayers pay the cost of your campaign
President of the Senate
VP, person who breaks ties
privatization
contracting out gov't, service to private sector
President Pro-Tempore
temporary president of Senate, longest serving senator
prior restraint
censoring press before they print something
progressive tax
more you make, more you pay
public defender system
lawyers paid by taxpayers
pluralism
belief that one or more interest should have access to the government
quota
setting certain # of seats for someone
quorum
minimum # needed for a vote
rule of 4
Supreme Court hears case w/ 4 judges wanting to hear it
Republic
indirect democracy
referendum
states, way for voters to approve legislation
rider
attachment to a bill
reapportionment
Determining new # of seats in House for each seat
realigning election
votes come back to the 2 main parties
regressive tax
more money you make, less you pay in taxes
reserved powers
powers left to states
revolving door
former members of Congress coming back as lobbyists
signing statements
why President signed bill
social security
government savings account
soft money
limited campaign contribution
subsidize
government pays part of cost
standing committee
permanent committee
separation of powers
Three branches (break in gov't)
slander
oral deformation
senatorial courtesy
President appoints federal judge and checks with Senate and state for approval
special interest group
group with 1 specific agenda for government
selective exposure
you choose what to listen to
Shay's Rebellion
showed weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
Speaker of the House
John Boehner
Spoils system
giving gov't positions to patrons
solicitor general
gov'ts lawyer
stare decisis
former cases set precedent for other future cases ("let the decision stand")
split ticket voting
vote for both parties on ballot
third party
Party not Republican o r Democrat
tariff
tax on imports
3/5 compromise
slaves gain voting rights 3/5 count
trade deficits
import more than we export
trust
monopoly
unfunded mandate
requirement by federal gov't for money grants
unicameral legislature
1 house Legislature
unitary system
1 central government in country
Voting Rights Act
Allowed federal voter registration
veto
rejection of bill
veto override
Congress 2/3 vote of both Houses override president's veto
Vice Presidential duties
break ties w/ Senate, Act as President
Voucher
Government check
Voter registration
signing up to vote before election
welfare(social/support)
Gov aid to people/Gov aid to business
War Powers Act
limited President's ability to send troops
Whip
line up all members for vote
Winner-take-all election
Most votes win
Writ or certiori
document requests Supreme court to hear your case
Zoning
Rules for land use