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L&B Test 2
Terms in this set (84)
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Behaviors that lead to a satisfying consequence will increase while behaviors that lead to an unsatisfying consequence will decrease
responses controlled by changes they produce in the environment
response that is elicited by stimuli
response class vs. topography
a response class is all behaviors that produce the same consequence, while a topography is the attributes of a response to a stimulus
example of operant behavior
professor asks question, student raises hand and gets called on. this gives the student approval
what does it mean for a consequence to be contingent on a response?
the occurrence of a stimulus is dependent upon the occurrence of a response
attributes of respondent behavior
-is elicited: preceding stimulus produces (controls) response
-Consequences that follow respondents don't control behavior
-Involves pairing two stimuli (CS & US); control by antecedent; mostly reflexes
attributes of operant behavior
-is emitted: consequences control behavior, not an eliciting stimulus
-Preceding stimulus set occasion for behavior that has been reinforced, but don't elicit response
-Involves response that's contingent on consequences; control by consequences; mostly "voluntary" behavior
-Ex: When trainer cued dog for "down", dog crouched
Do you reinforce the behavior or the organism?
Reinforce the appearance of a behavior, not organism itself
behavior made to occur by presentation of stimulus; not voluntary (reflex)
a behavior or action that, when performed, acts on the organism's environment and produces different kinds of consequences that affect the organism; voluntary
A classically conditioned response is
operant behavior is
When an event (e.g. adding removing of a stimulus) is contingent on a behavior, it indicates that
The event is directly related to that behavior
_____ is a behavior that operates on the environment to produce effects or consequences, which in turn strengthen or weaken the behavior.
stimulus that increases probability of behavior upon which is contingent
example of a reinforcer
food pellets given to rats for lever presses
increase probability/rate of behavior
example of reinforcement
the delivering of food after every tenth key peck
stimulus that decreases probability of behavior upon which is contingent
decrease probability/rate of behavior
stimulus is presented, behavior increases
example of positive reinforcement
Raises are awarded to employees who make their sales goals for the year.
stimulus is removed, behavior increases
example of negative reinforcement
To stop his mother's nagging, he does his chores.
stimulus is presented, behavior decreases
example of positive punishment
Mom gives additional chores for lying.
stimulus is removed, behavior decreases
example of negative punishment
Jon was assigned extra homework because he was late to school.
three term contingency
describes a relationship between a behavior, its consequence, and the environmental context
diagram of a three term contingency
Ro--| . |
discriminative stimulus (sD)
-Event/stimulus preceding operant
-Sets occasion for operant behavior, signals consequences will occur
operant or response class (Ro)
-Set of responses, can vary in form (topography)
-Produce common consequences
-This is the behavior
stimulus reinforcer (sR)
-Event/stimulus occurring after operant
-Alters probability of the operant occurring in the future
the relationship between the terms in the three-term contingency
SD sets the occasion: RO produces SR
ex:Ex: Phone rings: Answer :Talk to people
What does a discriminative stimulus do?
Indicates certain responses will occur
What is the difference between an SD and an SΔ (S-delta)?
SD: stimulus signals available reinforcer, results in increased rate of response
SΔ: stimulus signals absence of reinforcer, results in decreased rate of response
Ex: Green light: SD - push accelerator; SΔ - push brake
What is differential reinforcement?
Differential reinforcement: when behaviors reinforced in one context, but not others
establish new behavior, especially complex or those not responsive to instruction or modeling
Under what circumstances might you want to use shaping?
-When behaviors are complex, or organism is not responsive to instruction/modeling
-Also used more with animals or when immediate feedback is important (sports)
List and describe the four rules of shaping (Galbicka)
1) Start where subject is
-Requiring responses completely outside an organism's repertoire leads to extinction
2) Clearly define terminal response
3) Use small steps
4) Reinforce movement, not position
Name the pros/cons of using lax or stringent criteria during shaping.
-Lax may not get you anywhere, while stringent may also not get you anywhere
-Have to find a balance between the two
Describe the mechanisms of shaping
Differential reinforcement of successive approximations of behavior until terminal behavior is exhibited
selective reinforcement of one behavior and extinction of another behavior (reinforce next approximations and extinguish previous approximations)
intermediate response form, magnitude, etc.
desired end (goal) behavior
have survival value and are based on species history (phylogeny)
value given from association with primary reinforcer, and acquires effectiveness based on individual history (clicker training) (ontogeny)
conditioned reinforcer paired with many primary reinforcers (money)
How are conditioned reinforcers established?
Intrinsically (from individual): reinforcement by act of performing behavior
Extrinsically (outside source): reinforcement by some consequence external to behavior
Natural reinforcement: exists in environment
Programmed reinforcers: specific attempt to change behavior
What influences a reinforcer's effectiveness
-Establishing operators to increase reinforcer effectiveness
what is contingency
how frequent behavior followed by reinforcement (schedules of reinforcement)
what is contiguity
-more immediate reinforcer, stronger the effect
-Delayed is much less potent
what are characteristics
quality, quantity (rate), effort, delay
what are motivating operations
alter effectiveness of reinforcer/punisher
Establishing: increase effectiveness
Abolishing: decrease effectiveness
what is Establishing operators
Deprivation, reinforcer sampling, modeling, explaining/demonstrating, public positing, etc.
What are some types of reinforcers
-activity (watch TV)
-feedback (encouraging note about project)
-token (poker chip)
-social (smiles, praise)
What is the Premack Principle
-High-frequency behaviors can reinforce a lower-frequency operant
-Behaviors occur at different frequencies, yielding a response hierarchy
-If behaviors are higher in the hierarchy, should reinforce a behavior lower in hierarchy (Ex: homework and television time)
schedule of reinforcement
Schedule of reinforcement: rule stating how and when discriminative stimuli and behavioral consequences will be presented
Is the pattern of responding on a particular schedule similar across species and reinforcers
Yes! Found to be similar across species, types of behavior, types of reinforcing consequences, etc.
Why is it important to study schedules of reinforcement?
-Tend to produce stereotypical response patterns and generator patterns of behavior
-If you can identify how/when the behavior is occurring, you could change it!
What is steady-state performance
Steady-state performance: pattern of response that develops after repeated exposure to contingency of reinforcement
What is the difference between response-dependent and response-independent schedules
Response-dependent: response based
Response-independent: time-based (no response required)
types of Response-dependent
-Fixed Ratio (FR)
-Variable Ratio (VR)
-Fixed Interval (FI)
-Variable Interval (VI)
types of response-independent
-Fixed Time (FT)
-Variable Time (VT)
How do superstitious behaviors develop
-When you provide reinforcement on a purely time-based schedule, chances are that organism is doing something when reinforcer is delivered
-As a result, behavior is likely to be repeated
distinguish between continuous reinforcement and intermittent reinforcement
Continuous is More useful when learning new behaviors and intermittent is more resistant to extinction
Partial reinforcement effect (PRE): resistance to extinction is greater following acquisition where some, but not all, responses are reinforced
every occurrence of response followed by reinforcement
reinforcer not given every time response occurs
schedules of reinforcement based on number of emitted responses
-schedules of reinforcement based on time since last consequence
occurs after fixed number of time/responses
number of time/responses required for reinforcer changes after each reinforcer is presented
What is the post-reinforcement or pre-ratio pause
Post reinforcement pause (PRP): pause in responding that typically occurs after the delivery of the reinforcer on fixed-ratio and fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement
What is the inter-response time (IRT)? Inter-reinforcement interval (IRI)?
-Inter-response time (IRT): time between two responses
-Inter-reinforcement interval (IRI): time between any two reinforcers
Which schedule produces the most stable (constant) responding
Variable Interval (VI)
The shape of the response pattern generated by an FI schedule is called a
Schedules that generate a predictable stair-step or break and run pattern are
The weakened of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus.
What are the behavioral effects of extinction?
-extinction burst (initial increase in frequency)
-operant variability (behavior more variable)
-force of response (behavior force increases)
-emotional responses (agression, depression)
-resurgence (reappearance of other previously enforced behaviors)
What factors influence the rate of extinction?
-schedule of reinforcement (Partial reinforcement effect)
-history of reinforcement (How long has the behavior been reinforced)
-reinforcer characteristics (Quality, Magnitude)
-degree of deprivation
-previous history with extinction
-distinctive signal for extinction
What are some applied considerations when implementing extinction?
-have you identified the reinforcer maintaining the behavior?
-do you have control of the reinforcer?
-is an extinction burst tolerable?
-can you consistently implement extinction
What is spontaneous recovery?
The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response.
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