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10. Prophase is the first stage of mitosis. It occurs after chromosomes have been replicated in S-phase and before sister chromatids separate during anaphase. The number of chromosomes per cell is equal to the number of functional centromeres. At this stage, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids (produced by replication during S-phase) connected by the centromere. There are 10 replicated chromosomes.
20. Chromosomes in prophase consist of two identical sister chromatids connected by a centromere. Sister chromatids were produced by replication during S-phase, prior to mitosis. Each sister chromatid is a DNA molecule (double helix). If there are 10 replicated chromosomes, each containing two sister chromatids, then there are 20 DNA molecules in the cell during prophase.
20. At metaphase, the 10 replicated chromosomes line up along the midline. During anaphase when centromeres split and sister chromatids separate, each replicated chromosome becomes two unreplicated chromosomes. Because the number of chromosomes is equal to the number of functional centromeres, and each sister chromatid has a centromere, there are 20 chromosomes at the end of anaphase.
10. At the end of anaphase, there is one cell with 20 chromosomes - 10 chromosomes at one end of the cell, and 10 chromosomes at the other end. Upon completion of telophase and cytokinesis, the single cell will be split into two cells. Each cell will contain 10 chromosomes, the same amount as the original progenitor cell.
10. At the completion of telophase/cytokinesis, there will be two cells. Each cell will contain the same number of chromosomes as the progenitor cell - 10 unreplicated chromosomes. Each unreplicated chromosome is one DNA molecule. Therefore, at the end of telophase/cytokinesis, each cell will have 10 DNA molecules.
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