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55 terms

Grade 6 - Trees and Forests

STUDY
PLAY
lichens
a fungus and algae working together. The fungus absorbs water and nutrients and the algae produces the food.
leaf scar
the scar left by a leaf of deciduous when the leaf falls off in the autumn
habitat
the natural home of an organism
upper canopy
top of the forest formed by leaves and branches of the tallest trees. Birds (owl, orioles), and insects (aphids, tent catipillars) make homes here
understory
level below the canopy. smaller trees and larger shrubs. provides sheltered space for birds and small mammals (squirrels, woodpeckers, insects).
photosynthesis
plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into oxygen and nutrients (sugars) for the plant to use
chlorophyll
part in the plant cell that makes the plan green; needed for photosysthesis
leaf
the flat green part of a plant that makes food (photosynthesis)
examples of ABIOTIC (non-living)
sunlight
climate
rocks
water
wind
soil
examples of BIOTIC (living)
plants
animals
microorganisms
examples of types of plants and animals that live in the forest
producers
consumers
decomposers
consumer
organisms that must get their food from their environment (do not make their own)
primary consumer
eats producers.
so mouse - primary producer
eats
grass - producer
secondary consumer
eats primary consumers.
so, snake - secondary consumer
eats
mouse - primary consumer
teritary consumers
eat secondary consumers.
so, hawk - teritary consumer
eats
snake - secondary consumer
tree cookies
determine the growth patterns of a tree
determining factors of cookies
1. differences in coloration and texture of new growth and old growth
2. if scars are present from fire or mechanical damage (very dark area)
3. if enough nutrients were present (ring growth)
4. if nutrients were not present (close together ring growth)
5. crowded conditions (close together)
to classify leaves
leaf shape
margins
leaf arrangement
leaf type
to classify bark
colour
texture
pattern
to classify trees
general shape
silhouette
food chain
the movement of food energy through the different levels of consumers

grass -> mouse(primary) -> snake(secondary) -> hawk(teritary)
water cycle
all water in an ecosystem is recycled - 1. water goes into soil (percipitation),
2. taken up by trees, given off by trees (transipiration),
3. goes into the air as water vapour, condenses in the air and
4. falls as percipitation
plants need water
to live
plants take up water from
their roots
plants lose their water through
transpiration from their leaves
coniferous trees
evergreen trees -
DO NOT loose their leaves in the fall
cone bearing trees, needle leaves
In Alberta - lodgepole pine and jackpine
deciduous trees
loose their leaves in the fall
often produce flowers and fruit
broad leaves
In Alberta - aspen and poplar
3 common decomposers
fungus
conks
lichens
nutrient cycle
starts with the producer and ends with the decomposers.
how nutrients are cycled between the biotic and abiotic parts of the environment
ecosystem
interactions that link the living things and non-living things in an environment
underbrush
level before the forest floor. ferns, wild flowers, stem plants, insects, butterflies, small mammals like mice, larger mammals like deer, skunks
transpiration
moisture given off by plants through their leaves
tree cookies
cross-section of a tree. helps to show the life story of a tree
stomata
tiny openings on the underside of a plants leaves. place where gases are exchanged
conks
fungus found attached to tree trunks. grow like steps or shelves and have growth rings like trees
girdle
a scar on the branch of a tree showing one year of the branches growth
cambium
inside of the trunk, where the tree grows.
Function - to produce new wood and bark
abiotic
the NON-living parts of the environment. soil, air, water, sunlight, temperature, wind, terrain
phloem
the inner part of the tree.
Function - carries food from the branches and leaves to the roots
heartwood
the older dead part of wood near the middle of the tree.
Function - for support
fungi
organisms that lack roots, stems and leaves. cannot photosynthesize to make own food. examples - mildews, rusts, smuts, mushrooms, conks, molds
decomposers
feed on dead materials and put nutrients back into the soil
succession
the changes in a forest over time
bark
outside covering of a tree.
Function - protection and insulation
pith
central core of the tree
biotic
the living parts of the environment. plants, animals and microorganisms
producer
plants that produce their own foods through photosynthesis
food web
a lot of food chains intertwined forming a network of interactions
mycorrhizal fungi
grow on the roots of trees. some help the tree by gathering nutrients and water. some harm trees
forest
trees and their environment
forests serve as a
habitat for a variety of living things (animals & plants)
forests are important to humans
for recreation (camping , hiking)
from trees we get
raw materials ( wood, fruit)
forests create a life by
supporting the environment (provide food, provides oxygen and exchanges carbon dioxide)
forests provide
job ( forest rangers, loggers)