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Terms in this set (47)

A.Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation in one or more of the following ways: directly experiencing or witnessing the traumatic events; learning of a serious violent or accidental event occurring to a close relative or friend; or experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the traumatic event (e.g., first responders collecting human remains).
B.Presence of one or more of the following intrusion symptoms associated with the traumatic event: 1. recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic event, 2. recurrent distressing dreams related to the traumatic event, 3. dissociative reactions (e.g., flashbacks) in which the individual feels or acts as if the traumatic event were recurring, or 4. marked psychological or physiological distress at exposure to internal or external reminders of the traumatic event.
C.Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, beginning after the traumatic event occurred, as evidenced by one or both of the following: 1. Avoidance of or efforts to avoid distressing memories, thoughts, feelings, or conversations about or closely associated with the traumatic event, 2. avoidance of or effects to avoid external reminders that arouse distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the traumatic events, 3. inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma, 4. markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities, 5. feeling of detachment or estrangement from others, 6. restricted range of affect, or 7. sense of a foreshortened future.
D.Negative alterations in cognitions and mood associated with the traumatic event, beginning or worsening after the traumatic event occurred, as evidenced by two or more of the following: 1. inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic event, 2. persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world, 3. persistent distorted cognitions about the cause or consequences of the traumatic event that lead the individual to blame himself/herself or others, 4. persistent negative emotional state, 5. markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities, 6. feelings of detachment or estrangement from others, or 7. persistent inability to experience positive emotions.
E.Duration of the disturbance is more than one month and causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.