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Science
Medicine
Public Health
Domain V: Analysis and Data Usage
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Gravity
Terms in this set (78)
ratio
a comparison of two numbers (same unit of measurement) by division
Ex. female colon cases
---------------------
male colon cases
observed survival rate
Cancer cases expected to die from all causes
A histogram is a bar graph in which the _____ of the bar is proportional to ____________.
height; # of observations
specificity
The ability of a test to give a negative finding when the person tested does not have the condition.
prospective study
an observational study in which subjects are followed to observe future outcomes
In the transmission of cancer registry data from the facility to the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), the data fields in the transmission file are organized:
According to the NAACCR Record Layout
range
Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data
mean
average
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
Mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
Range ______ with the number of observations.
increases
cohort study
A type of epidemiologic study where a group of exposed individuals (individuals who have been exposed to the potential risk factor) and a group of non-exposed individuals are followed over time to determine the incidence of disease
qualitative data
descriptive data; describing color, shape, or some other physical characteristic
Nominal Data
Data which consists of names, labels, or categories.
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
a cross sectional study helps to determine _____ of a disease.
prevalence
Prevalence
fraction of a population having a specific disease at a given time
Ten cancer patients' ages at diagnosis are as follows: 31,51,52,53,54,57,57,57,60,61. Which statistical measure would be least
influenced by extreme values in this set of ages? (mean, median, mode or range)
median
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Variance
a difference between what is expected and what actually occurs
standard deviation^2 (squared)
variance
measures of central tendency
mean, median, mode
Probability
likelihood that a particular event will occur
Age, sex and race are examples of what kind of population characteristic?
demographic
Ability of test to identify positive results when the patient truly has the condition
sensitivity
Ability of a test to give a negative finding when the person tested does not have the condition.
specificity
p value
The probability of results of the experiment being attributed to chance.
Epidimiology
study of distribution and determinant of disease in the human population
what would be the best way to measure and compare the risk of diagnosis males of different ages?
age-specific incidence rate
incidence rate
number of people contracting a disease during a time period
3 ways to present data
• narrative / technical writing
• annual reports
• tables and graphs
frequency distribution
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
a frequency distribution summarizes _____
the # of items that fall into specific categories
absolute frequency
when the distribution = # of cases
Distribution
The arrangement of data values
relative frequency
A ratio that compares the frequency of each category to the total.
cumulative frequency
a running total of frequencies
ordinate
y-axis, vertical
abscissa
x-axis, horizontal
Ordinal
rank, order
Quantitative
Data that is in numbers
4 scales of measurement
nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
Interval Data
Differences between values can be found, but there is no absolute 0.
EX. temperature, time
nominal and ordinal are ______ data
qualitative
interval and ratio are ____ data
quantitative
dichotomous data
type of discrete data; limited to only 2 values
EX. T/F or male/famle
Polychotomous data
many categories
frequency polygon
line graph; A line figure used to present data from a frequency distribution
cumulative frequency curve
A frequency curve that shows the proportion of data above (or below) a specific threshold (e.g. Zero)
the 3 shapes of dispersion include:
a normal (bell curve), skewed and bimodal
normal curve (normal distribution)
a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve; mean . median and mode are the same
Skewed curve/distribution
the mode and median are either > or < the mean; lack of symmetry around their average value
left "tail" of distribution indicates a
negative skew
right "tail" of distribution indicates a
positive skew
bimodal curve/distribution
A distribution in which there are two peaks.
relative risk
The ratio of the incidence rate of a disease or health outcome in an exposed group to the incidence rate of the disease or condition in a non-exposed group.
Attributable risk
measures the amount of absolute risk (incidence) that can be attributed to one particular factor
synonym of incidence
absolute risk
degrees of freedom
# of independent quantities in a series
Chi-square
a common statistic used to analyze nominal and ordinal data to find differences between groups
(observed - expected) ^2
___________________________________
expected
t-test
a statistical test used to evaluate the size and significance of the difference between two means
standard error
the standard deviation of a sampling distribution
confidence limits
the proportion of time that repeated observations will fall in between a certain threshold
clinical validity
reliable results are of consistent clinical significance
Analytic validity
test results are accurate and reliable
proportion
an equation that states that two ratios are equal
actuarial method
uses all individuals in the study regardless of their length of follow-up (alive, dead, lost)
3 types of survival data
observed, adjusted, relative
Observed overall survival
uses all deaths regardless of cause of death
adjusted survival
considers only those deaths from a specific disease
relative survival
observed survival / expected survival
case control study
epidemiologic study where a group of individuals with the diseases, referred to as cases, are compared to individuals without the disease, referred to as controls
experimental study
the researcher manipulates one of the variables and tries to determine how the manipulation influences other variables
bias
systematically favors certain outcomes
selection bias
in an experiment, unintended differences between the participants in different groups
measurement bias
a form of inaccurate measurement in which the data consistently overestimate or underestimate the true value of an event
confounding bias
When more than one explanation can account for the end result
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