Sci Tech Junior Lit terms

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anadiplosis
repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near the beginning of the next. It can be generated in series for the sake of beauty or to give a sense of logical progression
anaphora
repetition of a word or phrase as the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences, commonly in conjunction with climax and parallelism.
analogy
compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one.
antithesis
establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure.
asyndeton
consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses
chiasmus
Two corresponding pairs arranged not in parallels: (a-b-a-b) but in inverted order: (a-b-b-a)
claim
The position of an issue, the purpose behind an argument. It answers the question "So what is your point?" (see warrant)
ellipsis
Omission of a word or short phrase easily understood in context.
epithet
An adjective or adjective phrase appropriately qualifying a subject (noun) by naming a key or important characteristic of the subject [also a descriptive phrase added to a name: Alexander "the Great"; Odysseus, "sacker of cities"
ethos
an appeal to the character of the individual and to values.
invective
Speech or writing that abuses, denounces, or vituperates against. It can be directed against a person, cause, idea, or system. It employs a heavy use of negative emotive language.
litotes
understatement, for intensification, by denying the contrary of the thing being affirmed.
logos
is appeal based on logic or reason.
metonymy
substitution of one word for another which it suggests.
paradox
an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but that may yet have some truth in it.
parallelism
recurrent syntactical similarity. Several parts of a sentence or several sentences are expressed similarly to show that the ideas in the parts or sentences are equal in importance. It also adds balance and rhythm and, most importantly, clarity to the sentence.
pathos
an appeal based on emotion.
polysyndeton
the repetition of conjunctions in a series of coordinate words, phrases, or clauses
rhetorical question
a question that is not answered by the writer, because its answer is obvious or obviously desired, and usually just a yes or no. It is used for effect, emphasis, or provocation, or for drawing a conclusionary statement from the facts at hand.
syllogism
is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises)
syllepsis
use of a word with two others, with each of which it is understood differently.
synecdoche
understanding one thing with another; the use of a part for the whole, or the whole for the part. (A form of metonymy.)
tautology
repetition of an idea in a different word, phrase, or sentence. Needless repetition of an idea by using different but equivalent words; a redundancy. In logic it is an empty or vacuous statement composed of simpler statements in a fashion that makes it logically true whether the simpler statements are factually true or false.
understatement
statement in which the literal sense of what is is said falls short of the magnitude of what is begin talked about.
warrant
laws, principles, or premises that apply to the case; authorization or justification, something that assures, proves, or guarantees. To give proof: bear witness to; to vouch for (see claim)