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Cognitive Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (60)
According to Squire's taxonomy, declarative memory supports both ___ memory.
semantic and episodic
Rats in the Morris water maze will escape from the water quickly if they ___.
remember the platform location
Simple delay conditioning is an example of ___ whereas trace conditioning is an example of ___.
implicit memory; explicit memory
Learning in the serial reaction time task is reflected by ___.
increases in reaction times after the target sequence changes
Recall tests are types of ___ tests used to access ___ memory.
Which of the following is most beneficial to long-term remembering according to the levels-of-processing framework?
According to the principle of transfer-appropriate-processing, memory for rhymes will be best when people attend to the ___ of words.
The self-reference effect requires one to relate to-be-remembered information to your ___.
LIST 1: BEAR BANANA TRUCK PEAR CAR GOAT APPLE BUS GOOSE
LIST 2: BEAR BANANA TRUCK HOUSE PLANET COT TREE AIR MONEY
LIST 3: BEAR GOAT GOOSE BANANA PEAR APPLE TRUCK CAR BUS
Imagine you are listening to a list of words being read aloud, one-at-a-time. In this situation, which of the word lists shown above should be recalled best?
The von Restorff effect illustrates the importance of ___.
Which of the following best summarizes the encoding specificity hypothesis?
Tulving and Thomson (1973) found good recall when ___ were present during the study phase, and ___ were present during the test phase.
no cue words; strong associates
Sachs (1967) found that ___ memory is typically lost soon after comprehension is complete.
Swinney's (1979) cross-modality semantic priming procedure was used to find when ___.
an auditory message would enhance processing of a visual word
Bill stopped by to visit Tanya so he could show her his new car.
The sentences presented above makes use of ___.
Which of the following is/are included in autobiographical memory?
All of episodic memory and some of semantic memory
The autobiographical memory reminiscence bump ___.
is for larger adults
When the AMP is used to assess implicit attitudes, people provide ___.
pleasantness ratings for stimuli intended to be meaningless
In a study of memory for the assassination of the Swedish Prime Minister, Christianson (1989) found ___.
no evidence for flashbulb memories
The Galton-Crovitz method involves eliciting episodic memories with ___.
Eyewitness memory is a type of ___ memory.
When an eyewitness sees a criminal with an easily visible weapon in hand that eyewitness is ___.
less likely to correctly identify the criminal compared to when no weapon is visible
Sometimes an innocent onlooker at the scene of a crime is remembered by an eyewitness and is incorrectly identified as the perpetrator of the crime. This is called the ___ effect.
Compared to when the sequential line-up is used, employing the simultaneous line-up procedure results in ___.
During eyewitness testimony an Asian woman is more likely to misidentify an African American person than she is to misidentify an Asian person. This is called the ___ effect.
Words or phrases that activate schematic knowledge are called ___.
PASSAGE 1: Mother Teresa worked for many years to help the people of India. Many people of the country supported her efforts.
PASSAGE 2: Sally Benchworth worked for many years to help the people of India. Many people of the country supported her efforts.
Compared to people who read Passage 2, those who read Passage 1 are more likely to falsely recognize the sentence SHE WORKED HARD TO IMPROVE THE LIVES OF OTHERS. This is an example of a(n) ___ effect.
Bill left Greenville at noon and arrived in Raleigh by 1:30 p.m. He was early for his appointment, so to kill time he stopped at Starbucks for a coffee.
Gail reads the passage above and concludes that Bill drove his car to Raleigh. That is, she drew a(n) ___ in response to the passage.
For a script about GOING TO SEE A MOVIE, which of the following is an example of a frame?
Buying a ticket
LAKE RAIN POND SPLASH OCEAN FAUCET HOSE FOUNTAIN RIVER WET
For the study list presented above, WATER is an example of a(n) ___ that could be used in conjunction with the DRM procedure.
You are asked to name the color used to print a series of visually-presented words. For which word described below would you expect to provide the slowest response?
The word MISERY printed in blue ink
Involuntary, vivid, and intense flashbacks to trauma-related events that can result from PTSD are examples of which "sin of memory?"
Remembering sad information best when you are sad, and remembering happy information when you are happy describes which of the following?
Mood congruency effects
The Velten procedure is used to ___.
create mood states
The harder you think about something, the better you'll remember that something. This described the impact that ___ can have on memory.
Tom notices that all three of his psychology professors dress poorly and concludes psychologists are slobs. This is an example of ___ reasoning.
___ is the form of conditional reasoning that is most critical to science while in general it is the least appreciated.
Denying the consequent
No A are B, and No B are C, therefore No A are C.
The statement above is an example of ___.
an invalid syllogism
RULE: If a card shows an animal on one side, then I must have red on the other side.
CARD 1: DOG CARD 2: GREEN CARD 3: RED CARD 4: ROCK
For the version of the Wason Cards Selection task shown above, the correct way to test the validity of the rule is to turn over cards ___.
1 and 2
SOME A ARE B.
SOME B ARE A.
When people acts as if the two statements above are identical in meaning, they are ___.
The two principle psychological perspectives on decision-making take contrasting approaches. Whereas ___ describes decision-making in terms of perfectly rational processes, ___ attempts to describe how people make decisions in day-to-day life.
expected utility theory; prospect theory
A man playing roulette bets on RED 50 times in a row and losses every time. He decides to bet on RED again, saying, "A RED win is so overdue that I'm bound to collect a bundle." This gambler is confusing ___.
independent events with dependent events
When someone makes the same decision regardless of the way the choice options are depicted, the person is exhibiting ___.
Kahneman has suggested that people fear flying more than they fear driving cars because of the ___ heuristic.
While algorithms ___, heuristics ___.
guarantee optimal outcomes; are usually easier to use
You are traveling on foot in a jungle when you encounter a gorge. It is 50-feet across and 200-feet deep. Circumstances demand that you cross the gorge safely. You have at your disposal two 20-foot wooden ladders, a box of nails and a hammer, a car battery, and an unlimited supply of rope.
In response to the situation, and overcoming the problem of ___, you begin tossing one end of the rope into the gorge. You continue until the gorge is filled with rope and then you walk across to the other side.
Luchins (1942) used water jugs problems to illustrate the deleterious effect of ___ on problem solving.
Important information about a problem space can often be established by ___.
examining extreme cases
Incubation seems to aid problem solving by allowing ___.
one to forget about a previously-used and ineffective approach to the problem
Results from the Bowers, Regehr, Balthazard, and Parker (1990) study with the dyads of triads task were interpreted by the researchers as indicating that ___.
unconscious problem-solving activities can underlie successes with insight problems
When presented with lists of words or lists of pictures, people easily remember the pictures much better than the words. This is called the picture superiority effect, and Pavio's (1971) dual-code hypothesis accounts for it by suggesting that ___.
pictures can easily be represented in terms of the verbal labels we give them
Imagine the letter "Q."
Put the letter "0" next to it on the left.
Remove the diagonal line.
Now rotate the figure 90 degrees to the left.
In line with the findings of Finke, Pinker, and Farah (1989), when a person is asked to follow the instructions above and name the result, their success with the task suggests that mental images ___.
can be manipulated just like real objects
Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser (1978) used a map of an imaginary island and found that the physical distance between landmarks on the island were directly related to and strongly correlated with ___ times.
Kosslyn (1975) asked people to imagine a hamster standing beside a giraffe. Responses were slowest when people were asked ___.
questions about the visual features of the hamster
Shepard and Metzler (1971) had people make judgments about pairs of drawings of three-dimensional forms and found that reaction times were directly related to and strongly correlated with ___.
angles of rotation
Metacognitive ___ refers to the how we assess the current state or ongoing progress of memory processes like learning and retrieval.
In a study of students learning Spanish, Metcalfe (2002) found that ___.
novices spent more time studying easy material whereas advanced students spent more time studying difficult material
Which of the following best describes the delayed-JOL effect?
Judgments-of-learning become more accurate after learning has occurred.
Which of the following best describes the unskilled-and-unaware effect?
Low-achievers tend to be overconfident whereas high-achievers tend to be underconfident.
Overconfidence is in evidence when a calibration curve ___.
is below the diagonal
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