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Who created the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY?

the third estate delegates

Who made the Tennis Court Oath?

representatives of the Third Estate

Why did the people of Paris storm the Bastille? What did this symbolize?

The French stormed the Bastille because they wanted to steal weapons to start a revolution. This symbolized the corruption in France.

The Great Fear

When the peasants were afraid that the nobles would send robbers to kill them. It was a result of the storming of Bastille

How did Napoleon gain absolute powers in France?

There was nobody leading france when he stepped in. France was weak with corrupt leaders and Napoleon was loved by the people. So it was easy for him to rise to power.

How did Napoleon reform the French legal system?

He established the Napoleonic Code.

Battle of Austerlitz

one of the greatest victories by Napoleon, effectively destroying the Third Coalition against the French Empire.

Battle of Waterloo

Napoleon's biggest defeat


A communal settlement in a communist country (everybody shares everything)

Hundred Days

The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law

Reign of Terror

the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed

Maximilien Robespierre

Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.

Napoleonic Code

This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy

Estated General

A meeting with representatives from each estate, but the estate with the most troubles, the 3rd Estate, only had 1 representative

Napoleon Bonaparte

French general who became emperor of the France (1769-1821)

What was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna?

to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes.

Who led the Congress of Vienna? (country)


results/effects of the congress of Vienna

peace in western Europe until WWI

Klemens Von Metternich

He led the congress of Vienna. He was anti- unification.

Otto Von Bismark

German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (pro unification)

Giuseppe Mazzini

Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (pro unification)

Count Cavour

was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian patriot; he was pro unification

King Victor Emmanuel I

first king of united Italy


one who loves his/her country

Why did the Italians want unification?

They wanted to be unified because they believed that Italians deserved a whole, unified country. Also they were inspired by the French Revolution.

Who lead the unification of Italy?


Risorgimento - what was the role it played in Italian unification?

movement for the unification and independence of Italy (youth movement)


the belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights (not traditional)


A political philosophy that advocates traditional values (prefer a government more like a monarchy)

Who began the Young Italy movement?

Giuseppe Mazzini led it

How was Germany unified?

Germany was unified by Otto Von Bismark. He led the German State of Prussia. He fought wars, and by doing this he unified Germany.

In what industry did the Industrial Revolution begin?

the textile industry

Where did the Industrial Revolution begin? Why did it begin here?

It began in Britain because their economy was prospering and there was an unemployed rural workforce who could make raw materials.

What was the cause of the Agricultural Revolution in Britain?

The agricultural revolution was caused by Britain's unexpected population growth. This caused there to be many workers.

How did the Agricultural Revolution cause urbanization in Britain?

It caused urbanization because there was a surplus of extra food and other raw materials that could be used in factories for urbanization.


a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.


a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.


the ethical doctrine that virtue is based on utility, and that conduct should be directed toward promoting the greatest happiness of the greatest number of persons.

Utopian Socialism

an economic system based on the premise that if capital voluntarily surrendered its ownership of the means of production to the state or the workers, unemployment and poverty would be abolished.


a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk.

Karl Marx

Father of Communism

Why did people support socialism?

The poorer classes would support socialism.

What was the difference between the first and second industrial revolutions?

The first industrial revolution used things like mills that relied on water. The second Industrial revolution used machinery that relied on steam and coal. The second industrial revolution also caused a lot of pollution.

Identify 3 impacts that the Industrial Revolution had on society

1. Child labor- children were working in unsanitary factories where they could be seriously injured
2. Cities were very dirty. Disease spread, there were rats and other vermin.
3. It also led to world wide urbanization. Farmers were leaving their farms to go to work in cities.


An early model of a car. Invented by Karl Benz


A boat that ran on steam. Robert Fulton invented it.

Light bulb

Invented by Thomas Edison


An early model of a phone, invented by Samuel Morse.

Spinning Jenny

A machine used to spin cotton, invented by James Hargreaves.

New Imperialism

extension of one nation's power over the lands of another in the late 19th century and early 20th centuries (1870-1914)

Three Causes/ Reasons for New Imperialism

Economic: they wanted resources for industry such as oil, rubber, and tin
Religion: Idea of moral obligation to civilize the world. Wanted to convert Africans to Christianity
Justification: "we take over their territory and they become more advanced so its even"

Identify the imperializing countries

Great Britain, United States

Which areas of the world were now put under European control as a result of new imperialism?

Africa, East Asia, Latin America, Asia

Identify 3 effects of new imperialism on society.

1. Struggle between nations, only the strong nations can survive
2. Mistreatment of nations under European control

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