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apes chapter 1
Terms in this set (73)
organism that eats another organism
close relationship between two species in an ecosystem
a relationship between two species in which both species benefit
a relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
a relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
using the resources in different ways, places, or at different times- can reduce the negative impact of competition on survival
characteristic communities of plants and animals that result from, and are adapted to, its climate
major terrestrial biomes
desert, savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, temperate deciduous forest, temperate coniferous forest, taiga, tundra
it is dynamic, it has changed in the past and may change again as a result of global climate change
freshwater biomes include
lakes, rivers, ponds, marshes
freshwater biomes are vital for
drinking water ecosystem services
marine biomes include
oceans, coral reefs, marshland, and estuaries.
algae in marine biomes
supply a large portion of the Earth's oxygen and also taken in CO2 in the atmosphere.
distribution of nonmineral marine resources
it varies because of some combination of salinity, depth, turbidity, nutrient availability, and temperature
distribution of nonmineral terrestrial resources
it varies because of some combination of climate, geography, latitude and altitude, nutrient availability, and soil
the area of shoreline between low and high tides
primary photosynthesizers in water
are algae, they start the food chain
the movement of atoms and molecules containing carbon between sources and sinks
reservoirs of carbon
hold those compounds in the cycle for long periods of time, while some hold them for short periods of time. ex: atmosphere, land biomass, ocean, fossil fuels, rocks/soil
carbon cycles between
photosynthesis and cellular respiration in living things
the burning of fossil fuels
quickly moves that stored carbon into atmospheric carbon, in the form of CO2
the reservoir it starts in
the reservoir that it ends in
the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
process in which atmospheric nitrogen is converted to a form of nitrogen (ammonia) that is available for uptake by plants that can be synthesized into plant tissue
major nitrogen reservoir
the reservoirs that hold nitrogen
hold nitrogen for a relatively short period of time
the movement of phosphorus atoms from rocks through the biosphere and hydrosphere and back to rocks.
the major reservoir for phosphorus
are rocks and sediments
where does the phosphorus cycle occur
only on the ocean and land. no atmospheric components in the cycle.
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back. in various phases, solid, liquid, gas
primary reservoir for water
the oceans, with ice caps and groundwater acting as much smaller reservoirs.
rate at which sunlight is converted into organic compound via photosynthesis over a unit of time
gross primary productivity (GPP)
rate at which ecosystem's producers (usually plants) produce glucose through photosynthesis. measured by energy (kcal) per area (cm2) per time (year)
net primary productivity (NPP)
rate at which producers produce glucose (GPP) minus the rate at which they use some of this energy for cellular respiration(R)
is absorbed in the upper 1 m of water
only penetrates deeper than 100m in the clearest water
red and blue light affect ecosystems
by affecting photosynthesis, the photosynthesizers have adapted mechanisms to address the lack of visible light.
levels of nourishment in a food chain
energy ____ & matter ____
ecosystems depend on inflow of energy
in order to maintain their structure of transferring matter between the environment and organisms via biogeochemical cycles.
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
an organism that makes its own food
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
how does energy flow
from the sun to producers to lowest trophic levels and then upwards to higher trophic levels.
only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. the amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up.
how is energy lost
through hear and cellular processes
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
a system of interlocking and interdependent food chains.
positive feedback loop
a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified
negative feedback loop
a feedback loop that causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which it is moving
What best explains why the different warbler species can all have habitats in the same conifer trees?
C Resource partitioning of the seeds reduces competition, and the five different species can live in the same tree.
In a fish species, the number of eggs that hatch and survive for one year varies depending on the number of eggs that were produced. As the number of eggs produced increases past a threshold number, the survival rate of the offspring decreases. Which of the following statements best explains why only a limited number of offspring can survive in a fish population?
The chance of survival decreases when there is intraspecific competition for resources among surviving yearlings.
Which of the following best describes a symbiotic relationship?
Intestinal bacteria inhabit the gut of humans.
This biome contains plants that are adapted to prevent water loss due to the low average rainfall and high temperatures year-round.
This biome is characterized by long dry seasons and is dominated by grasses, shrubs, and grazing animals.
This biome is warm and wet, with little seasonal variation in temperature and frequent precipitation.
Tropical rain forest
Which of the following statements is true of aquatic biomes?
Freshwater biomes are a vital source of drinking water.
Where is the majority of fresh water found on Earth?
Ice caps and glaciers
Which of the following biomes is best characterized as an area that forms the narrow band along the coast that experiences a range of environmental conditions (including daily changes in sunlight, temperature, and water) ?
Which of the following pathways indicate how nitrogen is added to the largest nitrogen reservoir?
Denitrifying bacteria and volcanic activity
How are the phosphorus and nitrogen cycle similar?
Phosphorus and nitrogen are both required for plant growth.
According to the diagram, the movement of phosphorus between biological organisms and soil is in a steady state in an undisturbed system. Which of the following best explains the reason for this steady movement?
Readily available organic phosphorus in the soil is assimilated by plants.
Which of the following is the best explanation for why there is such a small amount of phosphorus that moves into aquatic systems?
There is not a gaseous phase of the phosphorus cycle, and therefore the movement of phosphorus into oceanic reservoirs is very slow.
Which of the following best describes gross primary productivity in an ecosystem?
Gross primary productivity is the total amount of solar energy captured by producers through photosynthesis over time.
net primary productivity of an ecosystem
Net primary productivity is the amount of energy lost through respiration by producers subtracted from the gross primary productivity of an ecosystem.
Which of the following best describes the movement of energy in an ecosystem?
Energy is harnessed by producers, and available energy decreases with each trophic level transfer.
Scientists calculated the net primary productivity at two different forest sites. Both forests have the same gross primary productivity. Forest A has a net primary productivity of 1,650kcal/m2/year, and forest B has a net primary productivity of 1,110kcal/m2/year.
Which of the following statements is best supported by the data?
Forest AA producers have lower rates of cellular respiration than forest BB producers.
Which of the following best explains why terrestrial trophic pyramids usually do not have levels higher than tertiary consumers?
A large proportion of energy is lost as heat as it is transferred up the pyramid, so there is not enough energy available to support another level.
In a given ecosystem, producers convert solar energy into 15,000kcal of chemical energy stored in organic compounds. Which of the following is the most likely amount of energy available to secondary consumers?
Algae in an aquatic food chain convert solar energy into 93,000 kilocalories of plant tissue.
Which of the following values best represents the amount of energy available for primary consumers in the food chain?
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