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Biology Unit 6 Experiment 2 Questions
Terms in this set (11)
The stage of the cell cycle where each chromosome is composed of two chromatids in preparation for mitosis.
Yes, S resulted in the duplication of each chromatid. Since there is only one centromere on the sister chromatids, we still call them one chromosome. When completed, the cells are in G2 and preparing for M.
The class of enzymes that are involved in triggering events in the cell cycle are called:
Yes, kinases add phosphate to molecules, and the modification can serve as a "switch" to turn events in the cell on or off. Cdk or cyclin dependent kinases regulate the cell cycle.
Which sequence of the cell cycle is common to eukaryotes?
G1 to S to G2 to M to cytokinesis
The correct sequence has G1 as a preparation for S and G2 as the time between the completion of S and entry into M. Cytokinesis occurs after the other stages to create two daughter cells.
The stage of the cell cycle where the cell is preparing to begin DNA replication is called:
Yes, G1 cells are preparing for S
The proteins which complex with DNA producing the "beads on a string" or nucleosomes are called:
Yes, the histones form structural complexes with DNA. In the electron microscope, these can take the appearance of beads on a string.
Which of the following features of cell division are very different for animal and plant cells?
Yes, the animal cell can pinch into two by a ring of microfilaments. The plant cell with a rigid wall synthesizes a new cell plate. In both cases, the spindle fibers play a role in determining the site where the cell is split.
Prior to cell division, each chromosome replicates or duplicates its genetic material. The products are connected by a centromere and are called:
Yes, the replication of the chromosome begins with the production of sister chromatids. The complex is considered to be one chromosome since there is only one centromere.
The first stage of mitosis when chromosomes start becoming visible in the microscope is called:
Yes, at the beginning of prophase, the chromosomes condense into structures visible in the light microscope.
The sputum (fluid coughed up from the lungs) of many smokers contain cells with mutations (errors) in the genes for p53. The smoking induced mutations appear to be an early signal showing that cancer of the lungs will follow. What is the likely relationship between early p53 mutation and the development of lung cancer?
Mutations in p53 would prevent abnormal cells from dying by apoptosis.
If the mechanism for eliminating abnormal cells is defective, then the cells will continue to divide and further damage their DNA. This process leads to cancer. Exposure to sun also causes apoptosis in damaged cells. This produces the familiar peeling and blistering associated with severe sunburn. Over many years, exposure to sun also leads to cancer. It is particularly interesting that smoke seems to cause a high frequency of p53 mutations.
Which of the following statements is NOT true of mitosis?
Homologous chromosomes synapse in prophase.
Homologous chromosomes are independent in mitosis and synapse or line up only in prophase I of meiosis.
Cytokinesis in a plant cell is characterized by:
the formation of a cell plate in the cytoplasm
Yes, the spindle fibers are used to bring in vesicles that line up along the cell plate and produce a new cell wall.
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