49 terms

Chapter 28: Weather and Climate

Physical Science with Earth Science Glencoe
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Terms in this set (...)

greenhouse effect
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
temperature inversion
Atmospheric condition in which warm air traps cooler air near the earth's surface
troposhere
The lowest layer of the atmoshere, in which temerature decreases at a constant rate as altitude increases
air mass
A huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity, and air pressure at any given height
Coriolis effect
(physics) an effect whereby a body moving in a rotating frame of reference experiences the Coriolis force acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation
Jet stream
a high-speed high-altitude airstream blowing from west to east near the top of the troposphere
weather front
A boundary that forms when air masses meet that have different temperature, pressure, and humidity conditions.
continental climate
The climate of the centers of continents, with cold winters and warm or hot summers
maritime climate
climate type that is strongly influenced by the closeness of an ocean or other large water body. The annual temperature range tends to be small and precipitation is high.
sea breeze
movement of air from sea to land during the day when cooler air from above the water moves over the land, forcing the heated, less dense air above the land to rise
El Nino
A warm ocean current that flows along the coast of Peru every seven to fourteen years
Global warming
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
La Nina
A cooling of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America, occurring periodically every 4 to 12 years and affecting Pacific and other weather patterns.
Temperature and precipitation
what 2 major criteria are used to classify climates
ice age
what scientists call a period in time characterized by extensive glacial coverage
water vapor
what gas is responsible for the formation of clouds and precipitation in the atmosphere
liquid water
what the process of condensation turns water vapor into
weather
what the current conditions of the atmosphere at a specific time and place are known as
Clouds form when air rises, cools to a dew point, and then becomes saturated.
process of cloud formation
tornado
type of severe weather event is usually less than 200 meters in diameter
carbon dioxide
what gas is released in large amounts during the burning of fossil fuels.
located near large bodies of water, landlocked, mountain ranges
why two climates at the same latitude may have different conditions
When moist winds approach a mountain, they often drop rain as they rise over the mountain, and come down the other side of the mountain much warmer and drier
how a mountain can affect the climate/weather of a region
polar, temperate, tropic
the three types of climate zones
warm, cold, occluded, stationary
the four types of weather fronts.
Volcanic eruptions, which release gases that block the solar radiation from the sun
what major natural event can cause the Earth to cool
polar
which climate zone receives the lowest angle of solar radiation from the sun
tropics
which climate zone receives the most solar radiation
climate
the long-term average weather conditions for an area - changes less frequently than weather
evaporation
what process causes water to rise from lakes and rivers and change to water vapor
precipitation
Drops of water or ice that become too large to be suspended in clouds. Rain, snow, sleet, and hail are all examples
occluded front
type of front is formed when a fast moving cold front overtakes a slower moving warm front
hurricane
type of storm that can last for several days and have winds in excess in 120 kilometers per hour
cumulonimbus
type of clouds can reach heights of 2,000 meters, can form hail and lightening
tropical climate
climatic zone that produces rain forests with dramatic vegetation.
dry climate
The largest climatic zone covering 30 percent of Earth's land area.
mild climate
A subcategory, known as humid subtropical climates, produce warm, muggy weather in warmer months and dry, cool conditions during the winter months.
continental climate
Experiences violent changes in weather due to tropical and polar air masses meeting in these regions
polar climate
A tundra with no trees and low amounts of precipitation.
season
A short-term period of climatic change caused by regular variations in daylight, temperature, and weather patterns.
climatology.
The study of Earth's climate and the factors that affect past, present, and future climate changes
atmosphere
the term used to describe the layer of gases surrounding the Earth.
stratosphere
layer in the atmosphere contains most of the ozone layer.
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
5 layers of the atmosphere from lowest to highest
tropopause
area between the troposphere and stratosphere before the temperature inversion takes place.
stratus, cumulus, cirrus
three types of clouds
temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, and air pressure (precipitation)
six factors of weather
Hydrosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere, Atmosphere, Cryosphere
5 spheres of earth
energy consumption, deforestation, industry, agriculture
4 main human activities that have contributed to the changes in our atmosphere