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HUSH The Cold War Ch 25.4
Terms in this set (32)
The soldiers of ___—a group of some 400 soldiers shipped to ___ in 1950—never really had time to be afraid. Just days before, they had been a half-equipped and ___ unit stationed in Japan. Few of their members had any combat experience—a fact that concerned no one since there was no combat for them to take part in.
That changed with the sudden, surprise invasion of ____ by ____ forces in late June 1950. As the North Koreans drove deep into South Korean territory, President Truman authorized the use of American ground forces to ___ the advance. That meant Task Force Smith would be transferred from ___ to Korea.
Task Force Smith
General ____ referred to the soldiers as "that arrogant display of strength." Upon their arrival in South Korea, the troops were greeted with cheers. They drove out to meet the enemy, each soldier carrying two days worth of food and ammunition. They expected that the _____ would never dare to do battle with the mighty Americans.
Of course, the North Koreans were not impressed. As you will read, they quickly pushed aside the ill-prepared _____. The bloody ___ War was on.
Task Force Smith
The 600-mile-long ____ lies between China and Japan. The peninsula is also close to Russia, which in 1950 was part of the Soviet Union. China, Japan, and Russia have long held a strong influence over the ___ people. After 1905, Korea came under the control of the _______. Japan dominated and occupied the peninsula.
Then in 1945 the Allies defeated the Japanese in World War II. As you have read, the Allies had agreed to divide control of the conquered Germany among several Allied nations. A similar sort of agreement was reached regarding Japanese-occupied ___. At the ________ in February 1945, the Allies agreed that Korea should be ___ following the war. For purposes of accepting the Japanese surrender and providing postwar security in Korea, however, the Allies also agreed to temporarily divide Korea into ___ and ___ parts. The dividing line was to be the parallel at __ north latitude. The ____ would control Korea north of the ____. South of it, the ____ would be in charge. In fact, the Soviets played virtually no role in the military defeat of Japan. Stalin did not declare war on Japan until after the dropping of the first atomic bomb at ____. Nevertheless, after the Japanese surrender, the Soviets took control of _____.
northern and southern
The presence of the Soviets and Americans in Korea was meant to be ____. As in Germany, however, the start of the Cold War led to problems. In North Korea, the Soviet Union tried to establish a ____ system of government. The North called itself the ____ of Korea. Its first leader was ____, who sought to ____ North and South Korea under ____ control.
Democratic People's Republic
Kim Il Sung
In South Korea, the United States promoted a ___ system. South Korea, known as the ____, was led by president ______. Although an elected leader, Rhee held dictatorial control over South Korea. Like Kim Il Sung, he hoped the two halves of Korea would be ____.
Both the North and the South held the goal of bringing together the two Korean halves into one whole, but they had different ideas of how best to reunify the country. Efforts toward unification continued in the late 1940s. In the end, however, these efforts led to ___.
Republic of Korea
In the dark, early hours of June 25, 1950, more than 100,000 ___ Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel and invaded ___ Korea. ____ had ordered the invasion, hoping to ___ all of Korea under his rule.
The troops carried ____-made weapons and drove Soviet-made tanks. In the recent past, some border skirmishes had occurred between North and South Korean troops, but this was different. From the outset it was clear that this was a major attack. The future of South Korea was at stake.
Kim Il Sung
The attack came as a surprise to most leaders in the United States. Tensions on the peninsula had been high, and some observers had noticed a buildup of ___ Korean forces along the 38th parallel. Still, nobody in the Truman administration had anticipated serious fighting there. In fact, American troops stationed in South Korea since the end of the war had recently completed their withdrawal from the country. This had been part of a largescale decrease in the size of U.S. armed forces that had been taking place in recent years. Because of this, the ____ was not well prepared to fight in Korea. Nevertheless, the decision to fight was made quickly.
In President Truman's mind, South Korea was where the United States had to take a stand against ___ aggression. South Korea was a small country, unable to defend itself against an enemy supported by the Soviet Union or Communist China. Failure to defend South Korea might send a signal to other nations that the United States would not help defend their ____. It was even feared that a failure to act could lead to a ___ war.
Truman's viewpoint was shared by many others, including World War II hero General ____. "We'll have a dozen Koreas soon," Eisenhower declared, "if we don't take a firm stand."
Meanwhile, on the battlefield, the situation was getting more serious by the hour. Within days of the invasion, the North Korean force had pushed back the South Korean defenses and captured the capital city of ____. Truman realized something had to be done, and it had to be done soon. He ordered American naval and air forces to support South Korean ground troops. Then he asked the ___ to approve the use of force to stop the North Korean invasion.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
The United Nations Security Council voted unanimously in ___ of the use of force. Under the UN rules, ___ key countries held the power to veto UN Security Council decisions. That is, those five countries could single-handedly vote against a measure and defeat it.
One of the countries holding a veto was the ___. However, at the time of the UN vote on North Korea, the Soviet representative was absent, in protest over the UN's admission of ____. Therefore, the soviet representative was not there to ___ the use of force against North Korea.
This twist, however, would not be enough to save the South Koreans. It soon became clear that American ground troops were needed. This was a step Truman had been reluctant to take. He feared that sending ground troops might trigger the start of another ____. It soon became clear, however, that there was no other way to stop the ___ onslaught. On June 30 Truman ordered American ground troops into action.
The military force sent to Korea would be a ____ force. Technically, the whole effort was referred to as a ____ action. The ____ never declared war. Its commander was to be none other than General _____. American soldiers made up the largest part of the force. Some 15 other nations contributed a total of 40,000 troops. This combined force then joined what was left of the South Korean military in a desperate fight to save the country.
American soldiers had entered the battle in South Korea. Unfortunately, North Korean troops greatly outnumbered and outgunned South Korea's defenders. Fighting conditions were miserable. Summer ___ and heavy rains sapped what little strength the soldiers had after days of desperate combat.
Throughout the month of July, the news from Korea was ____. By the end of the month, the North Koreans had pushed UN forces all the way to the southeastern tip of South Korea. Here the UN forces formed a line around the port city of ___. This 130-mile-long line, soldiers were told, needed to be held at all costs.
In fact, UN forces held the port of ___. By early September, the Communist attack had stalled. Meanwhile, thousands of UN troops and tons of equipment were unloading at Pusan daily. Now MacArthur wanted to go on the ___.
MacArthur's plan was daring and brilliant. It called for UN forces to make an ___ landing behind North Korean lines at the port city of ___, on South Korea's western coast. Inchon was an unlikely place for such an assault. Its natural features made an attack by ___ very risky. Chief among these features were the extremely high tides in Inchon's waters.
To MacArthur, the disadvantages of attacking at Inchon only meant that the North Koreans would not ___ it. ___would be the key to his success. "We shall land at Inchon," he promised, "and I shall crush them."
MacArthur's plan worked beautifully. Within 24 hours of the September 15 invasion at Inchon, a 70,000-troop force had secured a solid landing and regained some ground. See the History Close-Up feature opposite to learn more about the Inchon landing.
The ___ landing helped bring about an amazing change in fortunes in South Korea. UN forces quickly moved out from Inchon to recapture ___. The North Koreans had stretched themselves too thin chasing the UN forces all the way south to ____. They were powerless to stop the force moving out of Inchon.
Meanwhile, the UN launched another offensive from ___. This attack broke through the _______ and started marching northward. Huge numbers of North Korean troops were destroyed or forced to surrender.
North Korean line
The turnaround was startling. The UN had been facing defeat in August. Only a few months later, by October 1, all of South Korea was back in __ hands.
American leaders now faced the question of whether to stop at the ____. North Korea's forces were in tatters. MacArthur favored taking ___ of North Korea. One concern about this plan, however, was the possibility that the ____ might come to the defense of North Korea. A top Chinese official issued just such a ____. But the Americans decided the risk was ___ taking. Truman also supported the plan.
Chinese or Soviets
Moving into North Korea continued to seem like a good idea through the days of October and November. UN forces made solid progress. There were some reports of ___ troops filtering into North Korea and joining the battle. By the end of November, however, MacArthur was preparing for a major push. He said his new plan would end the Korean War. Then just as the general's plan was getting under way, it happened: A huge force of 260,000 Chinese troops poured across the ____, which was North Korea's border with China. Again there had been an unexpected turnaround, but this time it favored the ________.
With the Chinese attack, MacArthur's promise of a quick victory disappeared. In fact, the UN forces suddenly faced defeat. According to MacArthur, the size of the Chinese force was simply too ___. Just as in the early days of the war, UN forces were soon in full retreat.
In the case of the 8th Army, this retreat went all the way back south of ____. It was the longest such ____ in U.S. military history. To make matters worse, the brutal Korean ___ had arrived. Temperatures in some areas dropped well below 0°F. In places such as the __________, American soldiers suffered terribly under the wintry conditions.
As 1951 began, the situation in Korea once again seemed dire for the Americans and the UN. In MacArthur's view, the UN faced a choice between defeat by the Chinese or a major war with them. He called for expanding the war by ____ the Chinese mainland and bringing Nationalist Chinese forces into the fighting. He even called for the use of ____ weapons.
MacArthur, as it turned out, was wrong. In January 1951, a force led by Lieutenant General _____ not only stopped the Chinese onslaught but actually went on the offensive. By April 1951 Ridgway's men had pushed the Chinese back to the _____.
Ridgway's success called into question MacArthur's harsh warnings about the need to ___ the war. It especially called into question MacArthur's recommendation to use ___ weapons. Truman began to believe that peace was possible without losing ____ or triggering a larger war with China or even the Soviets.
MacArthur was dismayed by Truman's attitude. He wanted to see communism defeated in ___ even if meant expanding the scope of the war. Increasingly, he made public statements that challenged the authority of the ____. He made threats against the ___ government even as American officials were exploring ways to stop the fighting in ____.
Truman faced a serious challenge. To many Americans, MacArthur was a major hero of ____. They supported his goal of taking the war to the ____. Truman, though, wanted to avoid widening the war. Further, he could not allow a general to ___ the president and make his own policy. Truman decided he had to ___ MacArthur.
World War II
The American public swiftly reacted to the MacArthur firing. While a few leaders supported the president's action, many Americans were ____. "The American nation has never been in a greater danger," warned the Chicago Tribune. "It is led by a fool who is surrounded by knaves."
This anger only grew when MacArthur appeared before Congress for a _____. Some 30 million Americans watched his speech on television.
dramatic farewell address
MacArthur closed with the emotional words, "Old soldiers never die; they just ___ away." Americans everywhere wept and cheered for their World War II hero.
Before long, the uproar over the MacArthur firing died down. Congress investigated the matter. The nation's leading military officers testified that Truman had been ___ in firing MacArthur.
Meanwhile, in July 1951, the United States entered into ___ talks to end the fighting. By this point, 80,000 Americans had been wounded and nearly 14,000 were dead. South Korea and other UN forces had also suffered greatly. So had the Chinese and North Koreans.
One major obstacle during the peace talks was the location of the ___ between North Korea and South Korea. UN forces by that point had actually managed to fight a short distance north of the ___. The UN wanted the boundary to be there. But the Communists insisted on setting the boundary precisely at the ____. This dispute helped break off negotiations at the end of the summer.
Meanwhile, the two military forces strengthened their positions. Now and then one side or the other would launch an attack. The goal was not to gain ___ but to improve ____.
Examples of such actions were the battles of ____ and _____. These were fought in the late summer and early fall of 1951. Both battles followed a similar pattern: The two forces took turns ____, then ___, key ____. Though little was gained, losses were heavy. In these and other battles during this time, the UN suffered 40,000 casualties.
winning; losing; hilltops
Negotiations resumed in October but again hit a major snag. This time the issue was ___ of war. Hoping that the UN would continue to fight for ____, ____ refused to send North Korean or Chinese prisoners back to Communist countries. This hindered the peace negotiations. Few major moves were happening on the battlefield, but the steady shelling and sniping was a deadly threat.
All of 1952 passed in a similar way. Negotiators meeting in the town of _____ argued over details of a peace agreement. At the same time, small-scale ____ claimed thousands of casualties.
Meanwhile, 1952 was a presidential election year in the United States. American voters elected the World War II hero ______________. Eisenhower would be inaugurated in January 1953. You will read more about Eisenhower's presidency in the next chapter.
In his campaign, Eisenhower had promised to end the ___ War. Once in office, he set about achieving this goal. At the same time, the ___ also seemed to want the war to end. Negotiators at ____ worked toward agreement.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Though the end of the conflict was coming, the fighting remained deadly. Indeed, the ____ seemed to step up the fighting in the hope of gaining a last-minute advantage. During the final two months, UN forces suffered 57,000 casualties. The Communists lost 100,000. Finally, however, the guns fell silent on ___. On that day, negotiators reached an ____ agreement.
The Korean War had left the map of Korea looking much as it had in early 1950, before the war began. The ____ had lost only a small amount of territory. The human costs, however, were much more significant. Some 37,000 American soldiers had died. Almost 60,000 UN troops from other countries were killed. Communist forces suffered some 2 million casualties. Perhaps as many as 3 million North and South Korean civilians were killed or injured.
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