Akbar the Great was the Mughal emperor from 1556 to 1605 and was both recognized as a military conqueror and liberal ruler. As a military conqueror, he provided his armies with heavy artillery and appointed Rajputs as offictors; this combination of military and political power allowed Akbar to unify the land. As a liberal ruler, he continued the Islamic tradition of religious freedom, permitted individuals of different religions to practice their faith, provided tolerance by allowing marriage to Hindu princesses without conversion, and promoted the cultural blending of Muslims and Hindu. He was a wise economic leader as well, for he governed through a strong and diverse (made up of natives and foreigners) bureaucracy, in which an effective taxation policy was enforced; through that policy, individual taxes would be calculated as a percent of the value of a peasant's crops, and in addition, the tax on Hindu pilgrims and jizya (tax on non-Muslims) was terminated, however, his land policies were controversial since he gave generous land grants to his bureaucrats but when they died he reclaimed the lands which discouraged Mughal officials. Although his invention of the "Divine Faith" became controversial since its equality amongst people, his empire was united through culturally integrated form of art and literature forms, inspired by Hinu, Muslim, and Indian cultures. Shah Jahan (1592-1666) was the Mughal emperor of India from 1628 to 1658 and under his rule, Mughal reached the golden period of Muslim art and architecture. To obtain power, he assassinated all his possible rivals and as a ruler, he had great passions for architecture and his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. After her death in 1631, he ordered Taj Mahal to be built in her memory, which was a tomb in Agra, India made out of white marble and jewels. Shah faced great controversy because while he was spending money in architecture and gardening, there was a famine in his empire and thus, farmers needed certain supplies to work through it. Despite the people's great suffering, Shah charged his people even more taxes to support the monuments, extravagant living, and war. Prince Henry the Navigator, 1394-1460, was the Prince of Portugal and patron of exploration who dedicated his career and life to directing voyages along the African coast. Inspired by the Muslim city of Ceuta in North Africa, he was curious to explore wealth in the form of gold, silver, and spices beyond Europe. He used his fortune to organize more than 14 voyages along the eastern coast of Africa with the purpose of mapping the coast of Africa (he never physically went on a voyage). In 1419, inspired by the riches in North Africa, he founded a navigation school on the SW coast of Portugal. Mapmakers, instrument makers, shipbuilders, scientists, and sea captains would gather to perfect their trade while making maps more accurate and detailed in order for Portuguese explorers to discover these rich lands and claim them for Portugal. Tokugawa Shogunate was a dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603 to 1867 in which they focused on taking care of the people, striving to be virtuous, and protecting the country. Under the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan has stability, prosperity, and isolation for more than 2 and a half years in which farmers produced more food so the population rose, more peasants were heavily taxed, and the merchant and the wealthy class prospered. They ruled an incredibly structured society in which there was an emperor on top, then a shogun, daimyo, samurai warriors, peasants, and finally merchants. Traditional culture thrived while modern styles of literature, drama, and art flourished as people expressed themselves through Kabuki plays, haiku poetry, and woodblock prints. By 1639, they instituted a "closed country policy" in an attempt to exclude missionaries and merchants from spreading European ways.
was a semi-feudal government of Japan in which one of the shoguns unified the country under his family's rule. They moved the capital to Edo, which now is called Tokyo. This family ruled from Edo 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.