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Chapter 9 Research Methods
Terms in this set (25)
Order effects include ____.
carryover and progressive error effects
Dr. Feliciano is conducting a study of sleep on children's activity level that takes place over several days; however, Halloween falls in the middle of his study, and he notices that on Halloween, the children are especially active during his observation. Which threat to internal validity has confounded this study?
In a within-subjects experiment comparing two treatments, the researcher is concerned that the results may be confounded by outside events that occur between the first and second treatments. One way to reduce the likelihood that internal validity will be influenced by an outside event is to ____.
switch to a between-subjects design
What is a big advantage of using a multiple-treatment design?
The data can provide more in-depth information about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
At a minimum, how many participants would be needed for a matched-subjects design comparing three different treatment conditions with 20 scores in each treatment?
In a Latin square, ____.
each treatment is administered first in the series for one group of participants
Which manipulation of the time period between treatment conditions reduces the chances of history influencing the results of a within-subjects experiment?
When one treatment condition has a lasting effect on the participants and influences their scores in later treatments, the study is confounded by ____.
A researcher would like to conduct an experiment, but is concerned about strong order effects. One solution is to use a ____.
In studies with a group of individuals being tested in a series of treatment conditions, factors such as history, instrumentation, and maturation threaten ____.
internal validity only
In a within-subjects study that extends over a relatively long time, it is possible that there will be systematic changes in the participants' skills or knowledge during the time of the study. When these changes influence the participants' scores, causing scores at the end of the study to be different from scores at the beginning, the effect is called ____.
A group of college students is participating in a memory study that involves performing the same task each day under different circumstances; however, as each day goes by, the students are obviously getting more comfortable with completing the task. Which threat to internal validity has confounded this study?
A researcher is evaluating the changes in performance that occur during a six-week training program. Participants are observed at the beginning and at the end of the program and the researcher rates each individual's level of performance. When the researcher's standards for rating performance change from the first observation to the last, then the internal validity of the study is threatened by ____.
What are the two major threats to internal validity in within-subjects experiments?
Environmental variables and time-related variables
During the first treatment condition of a within-subjects experiment, the participants learn a new skill that helps improve their performance in later treatment conditions. For this study, the internal validity is threatened by ____.
A Latin square design is used to determine the order of treatments that will be used in a within-subjects experiment comparing five treatments labeled A, B, C, D, and E. How many groups of participants will receive treatment E as the first treatment?
A Latin square is used with _____.
Dr. Mias is conducting a study on the effect of meditation on the anxiety levels of elderly hospice patients; however, the patients' declining health affects their anxiety levels in between each measurement. Which threat to internal validity has confounded this study?
What is an advantage of the between-subjects design versus the within-subjects design?
It eliminates the risk of order effects.
What is the effect of counterbalancing?
It spreads order effects evenly across the treatment conditions.
Compared to a between-subjects design, the variance in a within-subjects design is greatly reduced because the ____ are measured and statistically removed.
The tendency for individuals who have extreme scores (high or low) on one measurement and to have less extreme scores on a second measurement is called ____.
regression toward the mean
A way to control for order effects in a within-subjects experiment is to use ____.
History, maturation, and instrumentation are especially threatening to studies when _____.
the series of treatments extends over a long period of time
For an experiment that compares two treatment conditions with ten scores in each treatment, which design would require the smallest number of participants?
What are the pros of tests?
Although he did not collect any names or numbers that could identify the participants in a study, a researcher did collect information about their gender, age, race, and religion. How might this compromise the confidentiality of participants' data?
What type of study design is Dr. Farah using?
A researcher studying high school students found a negative correlation between the amount of time on Facebook and GPA. What can the researcher conclude about this statistically significant finding?
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