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How does the physical growth of the school age child compare with that of the younger child? What abilities emerge as a result of these changes?
Growth in childhood is slow and steady, compared to the more rapid growth seen in younger childhood. School age children become much more capable of self-care, can concentrate and sit still in school, and develop better motor skills as their bodies grow.
How have children's medical care and health habits change of the past few decades?
Children today are more likely to have illnesses diagnosed and treated, and therefore are less likely to develop chronic conditions. They are less likely to be exposed to toxins, such as secondhand smoke. In addition, children today are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as covering their coughs and washing their hands.
What are the main advantages of physical play during middle childhood?
Play contributes to good health and weight maintenance, as well as cognitive skills and social skills.
What are the short term and long term affects of childhood obesity?
There are short term health effects (example, high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol) as well as social effects (example low self-esteem and loneliness). Long term, obesity is related to lower likelihood of marriage, college attendance, or satisfying work.
What roles do nature and nurture play in childhood asthma?
Ethnicity and replace both play a role. A few alleles may contribute to vulnerability, as well as environmental factors such as carpets, pollution, parental smoking, and even overly clean environment.
Why did Piaget call cognition in middle childhood concrete operational thought?
Children this age can apply logic to concrete (tangible) things. They cannot yet deal with abstractions or hypothetical situations.
According to Vygotsky, where and how does cognitive development occurs?
Education occurs everywhere, not just in classrooms. Children's understanding develops from mentoring relationships with peers, older children and adults (including parents and teachers).
Why does quicker reaction time improved the ability to learn?
With quicker reaction time, children can read and write faster, retrieve information more quickly, and make decisions more quickly, this allows for more information to bebe processed, leading to better understanding.
How might a lack of selective attention affect a child's ability to learn?
If children cannot ignore irrelevant information and distractions, they cannot fully process the information that they are intending to learn.
What aspects of memory improve markedly during middle childhood?
Working memory—the processing of current, conscious material- improves markedly in childhood. By the end of childhood, long-term memory is extensive.
Why might having an extensive knowledge base make it easier for children to learn new, related information?
It makes it easier to master new, related information.
How might metacognitive skills help a student?
Metacognition Allows students to assess cognitive Tasks and determine the best strategy for accomplishing them. Control process like metacognition help with selective attention and emotion regulation.
How is their understanding of vocabulary and metaphors affected by a child's age?
Children's vocabulary's have grown to tens of thousands of words by the age of sex. The ability to understand metaphors increases with age, so that older children are capable of describing their experiences by using metaphors.
Why would a child's linguistic code be criticized by teachers but admired by friends?
The informal code use with friends after includes curses, slang, jesters and intentionally incorrect grammar. Peers approve of such violations, whereas adults wish to teach children the formal code, which includes standard speech and grammar rules.
How might a hidden curriculum affect how well a child learns in school?
When the school facilities are run down, the teachers are not from the same ethnic or economic group, or students are placed in "remedial" classes, the hidden message may be that learning is really not expected from those students. If the facilities are well maintained, the teachers are similar to the students in demographic characteristics, and the students are challenged to excel, the hidden curriculums may be that learning is expected.
What are the two most common international test of achievement? Why are these test given?
The TIMSS assess his math and science, And the PIRLS assess reading. These test measure achievement across cultures. The results provide information for the nations' decisions about instruction in these topics.
What gender differences are found in educational test and school grades?
In every nation, girls outscore boys on the PIRLS. In the United States, girls are catching up to boys on the TIMSS, and the difference between the genders among all countries is very small. Until poverty, girls have higher grades than boys in all subjects.
What are the main goals and criticism of "No Child Left Behind"?
The main goals are to promote high standards for public schools, making each one accountable for student achievement on test. The main criticism are that the states have developed test that allow their students to appear to have reached the NCLB goals, and that half of the states had to be granted waivers to avoid massive school closures.
What are the differences among charter schools, private schools, and homeschooling?
Charter schools are public schools with additional funding from private sources. They control over student admissions and expulsions and often have some exemptions from state regulations. Private schools are funded by tuition from families as well as private sources, and can be religious or secular in nature. Homeschooling is when parents educate their own children at home.
What is the difference between aptitude and achievement? Why might this difference be in theory only?
Aptitude is the potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge. Achievement is learning that has already occurred. Attitude and achievement scores are strongly correlated. In fact, aptitude may truly reflect achievement.
Why might it be important for teachers to know about the theory of multiple intelligences?
When teachers allow children to demonstrate knowledge in their own ways, it can be influential in education. EX: using a drawing instead of an essay for a history project.
In what ways might a child's culture affect the results of an IQ test?
When children come from cultures that value teamwork, they might not score well on an individually- administered IQ test. Children who have been raised to be quiet and respectful towards adults may be uncertain when responding to a professional test administrator.
Why might a child with ADHD have difficulty learning?
Because ADHD symptoms involve difficulty paying attention and sitting still, it may be difficult for a student to encode course material. In addition it may be difficult for students with ADHD to perform well on test due to their distractibility.
What are the signs of bipolar disorder?
extreme mood swings, from euphoria to deep depression
What are dyslexia and dyscalculia?
Dyslexia and Dyscalculia are both learning disabilities. Dyslexia is an unusual difficulty with reading. Dyscalculia is an unusual difficulty with math.
What are the signs of autistic spectrum disorder?
There are three signs of autism spectrum disorder: one. Delayed language; two. Impair social responses; and three. Unusual, repetitive play.
Describe LRE and RTI. How might each of these strategies help students with special needs?
LRE refers to the least restrictive environment. It may include educating children with special needs in a regular class, or it may include the use of a resource room with tutoring, or in May include the use of funny inclusion class, which integrate children with special needs into a regular classroom with special aids and services. This strategy allows students with special needs to interact with their peers. RTI refers to "response to intervention". In this strategy, students who are below average are given an intervention. If it doesn't help them improve, another intervention in stride. Testing for the presence of special need is held as a last resort. This strategy a boys legally children who may have only needed a little information to bring them into the average range of achievement.
How and why might SES and ethnic group affect a child being designated as gifted?
The designation of gifted frequently occurs at age 5. This means the children of lower SES families or less privileged ethnic groups may be excluded since they may not have had access to high-quality preschool programs and does start kindergarten without the experience of more advantage classmates.
Why my boards or governments choose not to separate gifted or disabled children from other students?
Some argue that school should have been the labels and categories in favor of a sept a difference as the rule. For example, in China, students are expected to mentor each other, so segregation based on skill level would not make sense.
Who's fault is it if a child is obese?
Obesity has many causes. Family practices contribute more than genes contribute. Obesity is common in children who are not breast-fed as infants, who watch TV and drink soda in early childhood, and who are less active, eat junk food coma and do not get enough sleep. But parents do not bear all the blame. Social policies and practices including the widespread availability of junk food in vending machines and the decreasing open spaces for play contributes as well. In addition, marketing and advertising play a role in creating desire for junk food and eating habits.
Why are math concepts difficult at age 4 but much easier at age 8?
Children who are four years old have not yet develop a sense of seriation, which is the understanding that things can be arranged in logical sequences. This develops by age 8 Along with other developments of concrete operational thinking.
What is the best way to teach a child a new language?
Research is not clear if immersion or billing was schooling is better at teaching a second language. What is clear is that this is the ideal time in life for a show to learn a second language.
Are schools in the United States similar to schools in other nations?
There are more differences between schools in the United States and schools in other nations, as schools reflect the culture and values of the country that creates them. For example, students and friends have far more physical location and our courses then students in the United States, and schools in Finland are design to foster teacher and student collaboration, unlike the typical school model in the United States.
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