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Chapter 8 smart book questions
Terms in this set (171)
True or false: eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of DNA and RNA
what are attributes of bacterial chromosomes?
circular DNA molecule and cells usually have 1 to 3 chromosomes
_____ are segments of DNA that contain information for a particular cell function or trait
the _____ is the genetic makeup of and organism that is ultimately responsible for an organisms expressed characteristics
the expression of the genotype creates traits referred to as
what are the 3 components of a DNA neucleotide?
phosphate, nitrogenous base, and deoxyribose sugar
which two components of a nucleotide are bound to form the backbone of a DNA strand?
phosphate and deoxyribose sugar
if a DNA molecule contains 15% adenine nucleotides, what percent of cytosine does it contain?
DNA _________ must occur prior to cell division to ensure that each new cell has a complete genome
the term _____ refers to all the genes constituting an organism's distinctive genetic makeup, the expression of which results in the organism's phentotype
All DNA nucleotides contain:
the same sugar and phosphate, but different nitrogenous bases
the backbone of an RNA strand is formed by bonding the ____ of one nucleotide to the _____ of another nucleotide
the nitrogenous base ____ forms hydrogen bonds with guanine
horizontal gene transfer
transfer of DNA from a source other than the parent organisms
vertical gene transfer
Transfer of DNA from parent organisms during reproduction
what best describes a plasmid?
a small circular piece of DNA that replicates its nonessential genes independently of the chromosome
conjugation, _____, and transduction are methods of gene transfer in bacteria
which two types of horizontal gene transfer do NOT require direct contact between the donor and the recipient cells?
transformation and transduction
_____ in bacteria refers to horizontal gene transmission via pili
donor and recipient bacterial cells are connected by the sex _____ during conjuncation
in bacterial conjuncation, a recipient cell having no F (fertility) _____ is considered F-
In bacterial conjuncation, which term refers to a donor cell with a fertility plasmid located in the cytoplasm?
In conjuncation, a copy of the DNA being transferred is retained by the donor, and this is termed a ____ process
_____ involves the uptake of free DNA by competent bacterial cells
a bacterial cell described as ______ can accept soluble DNA from the surrounding environment
_____ is a type of horizontal gene transfer often used in recombinant DNA technology
as introduction of genes into eukaryotic cells in a process similar to transformation is referred to as
a _____ is a bacterial virus involved in ______, a means of horizontal gene transfer
what method of horizontal gene transfer involves bacteriophages?
what type of transduction involves temperate phages that incorporate their genome into the bacterial host before carrying pieces to another host cell?
what type of horizontal gene transfer has been linked to the virulence of bacteria such as Clostridium, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Corynebacterium diphtheriae?
____ are DNA sequences that can switch sites in a genome and lead to changes in the genotype
transposons are linked to what bacteria?
intermicrobial transfer of drug resistance, phenotypic changes in colonies, and replacement of damaged DNA
_____ is the process of decoding the messenger RNA into polypeptide
A ____ is the specific sequence of 3 mRNA nucleotides, based on a DNA triplet, that encodes a particular amino acid
a sequence of DNA in a eukaryotic gene that does not code for protein is called a
in eukaryotic genes, interons are interspersed between coding regions called _____, that will be translated into protein
a phage is a virus that infects
_____ transduction transfers random pieces of host cell DNA, whereas _____ transduction transfers pieces next to the prophage insertion site in the bacterial chromosome
What is true regarding CRISPR technology?
the procedure is easy to perform, it can be used in most organisms, and materials to perform the procedure are cheap
In the CRISPR technique, a guide RNA
targets the gene sequence to be modified
what are two ethical concerns of CRISPR?
changes affecting regions of the genome besides the target have occurred and it can be used to accelerate mutagenesis in an organisms offspring
deoxyribose is the
sugar in DNA
a nitrogen-containing molecule found in DNA and RNA that provides the basis for the genetic code is a
in DNA, the two strands of the helix are arranged in a _____ arrangement
ensuring that the DNA code is maintained during DNA replication and cell ______ is one of the essential effects of DNA structure
what enzymes function in DNA replication
helicase, DNA polymerase and ligase
what two enzymes are responsible for proofreading newly replicated DNA?
DNA polymerase I and DNA polymerase III
E. coli and other bacteria typically have _____ chromosome
what best describes the antiparallel orientation of strands in DNA?
one stand is 5' to 3' a and one is 3' to 5'
_____ is a copy of the DNA template corresponding to a protein-encoding gene.
A _____ mutation results in early termination of the protein
a change in the gene that encodes the lac repressor was detected such that the amino acid alanine was inserted into the polypeptide instead of the amino glycine. This mutation is described by which two mutations?
missense and point
what type of mutation alters the DNA sequence of a gene, but does not change the amino acid sequence of the protein that is encoded by the gene?
what type of mutation has occurred when a gene that has undergone mutation reverses back to its original sequence?
a _____ mutation results from an insertion or deletion of nucleotides in multiples of one or two, and always leads to a change in the "reading: of the codons in mRNA
what type of mutation is generally most harmful to cells?
the field of pharmacogenomics is a means to correlate a person's genetic background with drug treatments. This field relies on an analysis of
proteins that remove incorrect bases in DNA and replace them with correct ones are termed _____ repair enzymes
photoactivation to repair DNA damage requires
DNA photolyase and visable light
steps of excision repair
-enzymes recognize a mismatch
-enzymes remove the base on one strand
-DNA polymerase I synthesizes new DNA as needed
-Ligase seals the phosphate backbone of the DNA
mutation can provide adaptive advantages for cells, such as:
acquired drug resistance
mutations in a population are beneficial when
they produce a heterogeneous population that can adapt and evolve
a change in the genetic code that leads to the insertion of a different amino acid in a protein is called a _____ mutation
photoactivation for DNA is successful for
only a small number of mutations
True or false: mutations are always harmful to cells
a mutation is beneficial if it
allows the organism to survive more readily
the primary intent of ______ DNA technology is to combine the genetic material from two organisms
synthetic biology may be used to
-create an operon using genes from different microbes
-create a cell whose entire chromosome was synthesized in vitro
-create an antibody with defined specificity
the replacement of a faulty gene responsible for a disease with the wild type gene is termed
in one strategy for gene therapy, the normal copy of the gene in question is cloned in a
changes to the genome of an individual that are passed on to offspring are term _____ therapy
a CRISPR region of a bacterial chromosome is comprised of
short sequences repeated many times and spacer DNA with pieces of bacteriophage or plasmid
bacteria and archaea store remnants of invading bacteriophage or plasmid at a site called the
the presence of CRISPR region in a bacterial chromosome is a _____ to the host because
advantage; it allows the microbe to keep a record of previous phage invasions
the field of biology that combines parts from different organisms to create new molecules and cells never before found in nature is called
changes to the genome of an individual that are not passed on to offspring are termed ____ therapy
a region of some bacterial chromosomes that includes both a set of short repeated sequences and spacer DNA of bacteriophage and plasmid is called
steps of recombinant DNA procedure
-remove and isolate a selected gene from a donor organism
-insert the gene of interest into a vector
-use vector to deliver selected gene into cloning host
the process of producing a genetically identical population of cells or genes in recombinant DNA technology is
a genetic element such as plasmid or virus that is used to introduce genetic material into a cloning host during recombinant DNA experiments is called a
what are good cloning vectors?
bacteriophage and plasmids
an organism that receives and replicates a foreign piece of DNA inserted during a genetic engineering experiment is called the
what describes the study of an organisms complement of proteins and their functions?
what is the first challenge in the recombinant DNA process in cloning a target gene?
locating a isolating a target gene
what describes the systematic study of an organisms genes and their functions?
steps in high-throughput sequencing
-fragment the DNA and add adaptors
-copy the genome by PCR
-sequence individual fragments
-align sequences with software
in high-throughput sequencing, many copies of the DNA to be sequenced are made by
polymerase chain reaction
differences between eukaryotic and bacterial protein synthesis
transcription and translation are simultaneous in bacteria but not eukaryotes and the first amino acid is slightly different
translation occurs in the ______ of protozoa and the _____ of bacterial cells
how many stop codons are contained within the genetic code?
produces a strand of mRNA with no introns
the spliceosome is comprised of
RNA and protein
transcription and translation are not simultaneous in eukaryotic cells because
the processes occur in separate cellular compartments
order of the processing of eukaryotic transcripts
-the gene is transcribed to mRNA
-a series of adenosines is added to the mRNA
-a spliceosome excises introns from the mRNA
-the mRNA leaves the nucleus
-the mRNA is translated into protein
produces a strand of mRNA with no introns
_______ _______ is a laboratory technique for separating DNA fragments according to length by employing electricity to force the DNA through a gel-like matrix
what property of DNA fragment determines the distance it moves during gel electrophoresis?
size of fragment
a genome sequence gives
the sequencd of the nucleotide in a chromosome
the final step in shotgun genome sequencing is to
edit the results
the exact order of nitrogenous bases in the DNA of a chromosome is termed the
_____ is the study of inheritance of living things
code for anabolic enzymes and usually turned on unless product is in excess
An operator, promoter, and regulator are components of which prokaryotic unit?
regardless of lactose levels, the lac operon remains in the "off" position if what nutrient is present?
the process of bacteria turning on or off a group of genes that changes its phenotype is called
the ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to produce attachment fimbriae is an example of
put the three basic steps of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order
_____ are formed from long chains of amino acids produced in translation
______ is the process of decoding DNA into messenger RNA
junk DNA is
DNA whose function is not yet understood
which enzyme transcribes DNA into RNA?
which type of RNA is transcribed from a DNA template?
all types of RNA
what is the main event of transcription termination?
RNA polymerase reaches a terminator region
what is the main event of transcription elongation?
RNA polymerase joins nucleotides
the ____ DNA strand is the strand that is copied into mRNA
RNA polymerase binds to the ____ region of the DNA to initiate transcription
what is not composed of RNA
____ and proteins compose ribosome subunits
Which RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis?
the anticodon of the tRNA carrying the codon GUU is
the ribosomes of eukaryotes are ____ whereas the ribosomes of bacteria are ____
the _____ of the genetic code results in several codons encoding the same amino acids
due to the ______ property of the genetic code, a mutation can occur in the third base of a codon and still not affect the amino acid sequence in some cases
what is not a type of posttranslational modification
removal of the introns
one reason protein synthesis is more efficient in bacteria than in eukaryotes because bacterial ______ and _______ are simultaneous
true or false: during protein synthesis, many copies of a specific protein can be synthesized from a single mRNA transcript
what events initiate translation?
-Ribosome scans to find AUG on the mRNA transcript
-Assembly of the ribosomal subunits
how do the P and A sites on the ribosome differ?
the P site contains the existing peptide and the A site has the next amino acid- tRNA to be added to the growing protein chain
what are events of translation elongation?
-the ribosome shifts from one codon on the mRNA to the next
-amino acids are joined by peptide bonds
-a tRNA delivers the next amino acid in the sequence
what type of RNA composes ribosomal subunits together with protein?
which organic molecule is formed from chains of amino acids that are produced in translation?
DNA sequences whose function is not yet understood is often termed _____ DNA
RNA polymerase converts _____ into the various types of ______
the process of transcription ____ results in the release of a completed RNA transcript
what is the function of mRNA
serves as a transcript of a gene sequence of template DNA
the ribosomes of _____ are 70S whereas the ribosomes of _____ are 80S
the removal of formyl methionine, the addition of a cofactor, or the joining of two completed polypeptides to form a functional protein are all examples of
when codon 4 is in the P site of the ribosome, which codon is in the A site?
during translation elongation, peptide bonds form between:
the complete set of chromosomes and genes in an organism is referred to as the
____ refers to the transfer of genes between donor and recipient microorganisms, forming a new strain different from donor and recipient
__________ __________ is the enzyme that can convert RNA into DNA
what is the importance of PCR?
increases the amount of DNA in a sample
TAQ polymerase is a
______ mutations occur when errors are made in DNA replication whereas ______ mutations are caused by exposure to radiation or chemical agents
a mutation that does not lead to adverse or helpful changes is termed a _____ mutation
what is true for inducible operons?
-example is the lac operon
-usually turned off unless substrate is present
-code for catabolic enzymes
what type of operon codes for catabolic enzymes and is turned on by the presence of their substrates?
genomes of cells are composed of
what are three basic categories of genes?
-genes that encode ribosome components
what kind of gene encodes a protein?
In bacteria, a regulatory gene, a control region, and structural genes collectively are referred to as a
naming process for restriction enzymes
-first letter of bacterial genus
-first two letters of bacterial species
-number showing the order discovered in the bacterium
describe the origin of replication
located on the chromosome and AT-rich
the lac repressor is an allosteric molecule, meaning it has two binding sites:
one for the operator and one for lactose
___ is the copy of the DNA template corresponding to a protein-encoding gene
what term describes the study of all the genomes in an ecological niche?
A _____ mutation involves any substitution of a single nucleotide that does not change the DNA reading frame
vital genomes are composed of
either DNA or RNA
bacterial and archaeal genes are arranged into
if a cloning host receives the recombinant plasmid in recombinant DNA technology, what can it do?
transcribe and translate the foreign gene to make product
the _____ is the site where the repressor binds to turn transcription of the structural genes off.
which enzyme seals the sticky ends of DNA pieces when splicing genes into plasmids or chromosomes?
what are restriction fragments?
pieces of DNA produced by endonucleases
what is the role of the promoter in an operon?
the site of RNA polymerase binding
restriction enzymes recognize and clip at sequences called
the lac repressor binds to the _____ in the absence of lactose
the process of ____ is used to introduce a recombinant plasmid to the cloning host
the pentose sugar in RNA is _____, while in DNA the pentose sugar is
the enzyme responsible for building the new strands of DNA in PCR is called
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