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APE Unit #2
Terms in this set (124)
The Fronde was a series of civil wars that occurred as a result of Cardinal Jules Mazarin trying to centralize French powers by raising royal revenues. The word fronde means slingshot or catapult, and a frondeur was originally a peasant who threw mud at rich carriages. The term came to be applied to anyone who opposed the policies of the government. Many people, especially previously powerful nobles, resented the increase of the monarch's power and felt like they were being manipulated. Mazarin could not control them like Richelieu. The entire nation refused to pay taxes, weakening the government significantly. Their success in the Battle of Rocroi against Spain made the people think that they did not need taxes to sustain the state. Nobles banded together with peasants and led intense rebellions. Violence continued for 12 years. The revolts/wars had three main results: the French government was forced to compromise with the bureaucrats and the elites, the economy was disrupted, and young future King Louis XIV was traumatized and developed a hatred for the nobility.
Absolute ruler in France. Richelieu consolidated the French monarchy for Louis XIV and his father Louis XIII. France's absolutism peaked under him. Called "the sun king. Was Catholic. The Fronde caused him to not trust anyone, especially nobles. In his rule, he gained the support and cooperation with the nobility by spending time with them and giving them privileges. He also undermined the most powerful nobles and excluded them from his meetings so they were not a threat to Louis' power. With the nobles support, Louis increased taxes in the French provinces to build his military. Louis established a court at versailles where he had nobles and the upper class meet. It symbolized the king's power, and Louis used it to show his power to the nobles. Many princes and monarchs in Europe imitated the art+architecture at Versailles. Under Louis, French became the international language of diplomats and wealthy. Louis had bureaucracy, but they served the state and represented Louis, rather than share power with him. Louis also used secret police and other cunning methods that are used in governments today.
He was appointed chief minister by Henry IV (Henry of Navarre). Henry chose Sully, a protestant, as his minister to better connect with the protestant people in France. Sully lowered taxes, and as aresult, trade increased and revenues increased. He supported and worked with overseas trade companies, such as the Company for Trade in the Indies. He and Henry IV made economic prosperity in France, as well as restored order and peace. After Henry IV died, there was chaos, and Marie de' Medici got power. Richelieu fixed france after this.
"chicken in every pot"
When Henry IV was crowned, he proclaimed, "I want there to be no peasant in my realm so poor that he will not have a chicken in his pot every Sunday." Henry (the Great/of Navarre) was crowned to chaos in France. The economy was suffering from poor harvests and depopulation, which led to an extreme decrease in commercial activity. During his reign, Henry lowered peasant taxes and kept France financially by creating the paulette, a tax to insure hereditary in nobles. His "chicken in every pot" expression conveys how much he cared for his subjects and strived to improve their lifestyle and keep them from starvation.
She was the absolute monarch in Eng. She held great power and won in the Thirty Years' War. She had a good relationship with parliament and gained their cooperation, and also manipulated them. She kept her power by carefully selecting administrators and running finances. Her son and successor, James I, was not very good and the monarchy was weakened. Elizabeth left James a bit of debt, and James did little to repay it. Elizabeth also left James a confident Parliament (or house of commons) that wanted more say in the govt.
James I was the successor of Elizabeth. James believed in the divine right of kings; the king was responsible to God only. James lectured the House of Commons telling them that king had jurisdiction over liberties, persons, and properties of the English people. James I was the son of Henry VII, and was thus the nephew of Henry VIII who had broken away from the Catholic Church and formed the Anglican Church. The Puritans in England wanted to purify the English Church of Anglicanism, by creating new ceremonies, and bishops. James was not a Puritan, he was a Calvinist; he and his son Charles I were sympathetic to the Roman Catholic church. James I's son Charles I supported the ideas of William Laud who wanted to to expand the rituals and the rich ceremonies of all churches. Laud wanted there to be uniformity in all church services, and used the Court of High Commission in order to enforced this uniformity. 1637 William Laud tried to impose two new ideas in Scotland, one was a new prayer book, which was based on the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, and he tried to create bishoprics in Scotland. Revolts started in Scotland, which forced Charles I to call Parliament in 1640
Charles II was a king of England, and was the oldest son of Charles I. Charles II began the restoration of the English monarchy; the Restoration failed to solve two problems: what would be the attitude towards those who did not follow the Anglican Church, and what would be the relationship between the King and Parliament. Charles II refused to get along with Parliament, however he avoided conflict by appointing five new members of Parliament, who were also his main advisers. These members of Parliament bridged the gap between the executive and legislative branches of government; the new members were called the "Cabal" which is an acronym for the last names of the five new members of Parliament. Charles II's Parliament did not give him the tax money that he needed, so in 1670, he entered a secret agreement with Louis XIV, in which Louis XIV would pay Charles, and in return Charles would try to make England more Catholic, and he would support the French in their foreign policy against the Dutch.
James II was the Duke of York, and was the brother of Charles II. Charles II did not have a legitimate son, therefore his brother succeeded the throne. Once the details of the secret deal that his brother Charles II had with Louis XIV went public, many people feared that James II would reinstate Roman Catholicism. Parliament tried to pass a bill that would make it impossible for a Roman Catholic to succeed the throne, however Charles II dissolved the bill. Many Roman Catholic supporters feared the rule of James II; James went directly against the Test Act, which protected the church of Anglicanism, by appointing Roman Catholic officials to high positions in the army, universities, and local government. Eventually, James II created a declaration of indulgence which granted religious freedom. Bishops eventually revolted against the declaration of indulgence, however they were imprisoned. James daughter Mary married William of Orange, and they were crowned in 1689. James II and his wife fled to France in 1688.
Called long because sat from 1640-1660, enacted legislation that limited power of monarch and made arbitrary government impossible. brought together by Charles I
joint stock company
A joint-stock company is a business entity where different stakes can be bought and owned by shareholders.
-In 17th century England, during the reigns of James I and Charles I, many people engaged in foreign enterprises through joint stock companies. They were wealthy from the sale/dissolution of monasteries, and the improvement of agricultural techniques.
-In 1602 group of Holland regents formed the Dutch East India Company. It was a joint stock company that established trading posts in the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, and Malacca. They also cut in to Portuguese trading in East Asia, and traded with Latin America and Africa. This joint stock company brought the Dutch much wealth.
decline of Spain in the 17th century
-Lack of a strong middle class, agricultural crisis, intellectual isolation, and failure to invest in productive enterprise reduced Spain to a second rate power.
-Spain was previously enriched by the flow of silver from Mexico and Peru, and sale of cloth, wine, grain, and oil to the colonies. However, in 17th cent. Dutch and English also began trading with Spanish colonies, and Mexico and Peru developed their own industries, thus lessening revenue.
-Metal production declined bc Indian and African workers were suffering from diseases.
-Spending exceeded income, so their was devaluation of coinage, and cancellation of national debt (confidence in Spain declined).
-moneymaking condemned, people became clergy positions, inflation occurred, and many people fled
-Philip III, Philip IV, and Charles II were weak rulers, left kingdom to duke of Olivares.
-Olivares got Spain involved in Thirty Years War, which led to disaster and the end of Spain as a great power
-Spanish absolutism relied on gold and silver, so as supply of bullion decreased, the power of the Spanish state declined,
-State councils were still run by aristocrats, and the
the (war of) Spanish Succession
When Charles II of Spain died in 1700 without an heir, his will left the Spanish crown and the entire Spanish Empire to Philip of Anjou, the grandson of Louis XIV. Even though the will explicitly stated that France and Spain should not be united, Louis still tried to combine the kingdoms. The possible union could have seriously upset the European balance of power, and the conflict started the War of the Spanish Succession, which lasted 12 years. In 1701, the English, Dutch, Austrians and Prussians formed the Grand Alliance against Louis XIV. They claimed that they were fighting to prevent France from becoming too strong, but they also wanted to check France's growing power in North America, Asia and Africa. In this war; Eugene, prince of Savoy, representing the HRE; and Englishman John Churchill were prominent soldiers who defeated Louis in many battles. In 1713, Louis XIV was forced to sign the Peace of Utrecht. Philip (Louis's grandson, previously Philip of Anjou) remained the first Bourbon king of Spain, giving up his place in the line of French succession, under the circumstances that the Spanish and French crowns would never unite. France was also forced to surrender many of its territories to England.
The English Navigation Act of 1651
The English Navigation was enforced in 1651 by Oliver Cromwell, which required that English goods be transported on English ships. This boosted the English merchant marine and also started a war with the Dutch, which the English quickly won. Since the Dutch were the leaders in sailing, trade and exports, they dominated the market and profits. A lot of English and other countries' goods were being transported by the Dutch. The Navigation Act was supposed to eliminate or at least minimize the Dutch competition. Also, the English wanted to practice the well-liked idea of mercantilism, by controlling at least their own trade and by selling more exports than buying, this way getting all the money for themselves.
Mercantilism is a collection of government policies for the regulation of economics activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state. In the 1700-1800s, the power of a country was based on its wealth, mainly its amount of gold. To accumulate gold, a country had to sell more goods than it bought. Mercantilism was established in France by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, a financial genius and the controller general of finances. He believed that the wealth and economy of France should serve the state, and wanted France to become self-sufficient, meaning that they produce everything themselves and only sell their products, buying nothing back. To accomplish this self-sufficiency, Colbert made all craftsmen join guilds, and set up a system of inspection and regulation to ensure a high quality finished product. He also supported and gave special privileges to old and new industries (cloth, rug and tapestry, mirrors, looms, steel, firearms, etc.) and encouraged foreign craftsmen to immigrate to France. Colbert abolished many domestic tariffs and enacted high foreign tariffs, which prevented foreign products from competing with French ones.
laissez faire economics
One of the fundamental principles of capitalism.
Declares that economic system is independent and separate from government intervention. Centered upon the belief that when individuals are motivated by self-interest in their economic activities, production and exchange is balanced.
First tried under the rule of Louis XV of France (1754); hinted at by John Locke (but not actually mentioned in the book until ch. 23)
Economic and political arrangement in which the trade and production of a country is dominated by private organizations rather than the state of government.
Capitalism declined with the rise of mercantilism under Louis XIV, government policies regulated commercial activities.
It increased in England during the 16th and 17th centuries, where many people invested in businesses, such as the cloth industry. Many capitalists were in the House of Commons and wanted political power that corresponded to its economic strength, which brought them in conflict with King James I and Charles I of England.
Calvinist virtues - hard work, thrift, sobriety, competition, etc. were popular among many English capitalists.
Cardinal Richelieu was a member of the council of ministers that held power in France during the reign of Louis XIII. Quickly becoming first minister of the French crown, he began reducing the power of the nobility and quickly stamped out revolts. Richelieu divided France into thirty-two generalités that were run by intendants, special servants of the king who enforced royal orders and weakened the power of the nobility. Richelieu supported the foundation of the French Academy that standardized the French language. He was committed to destroy Habsburg power in the territories that surrounded France, and supported the Swedish Lutheran king, Gustavus Adolphus, in the 30 Years War. Richelieu was able to centralize France into a powerful force and into the beginning of French Absolutism.
'Huguenots' was the term for French Calvinists and Protestants. Largely Calvinist, the Huguenots suffered severe persecution at the hands of the Catholic majority. Henry IV made the "Law of Concord" aka the Edict of Nantes, which gave Protestants the right to worship in 150 towns. Louis XIV revoked this Edict, and many thousands emigrated from France.
It started out as a hunting lodge ten miles from Paris for Louis XIII so he could get away from his wife. Louis XIV turned it into a palace. The whole place was adorned with paintings, candles, carved pieces and the Hall of Mirrors. He used it to overawe his subjects and foreign visitors, and it eventually became the epitome of Baroque architecture, which seeks to awe viewers with the monarch's strength. Versailles was synonymous with Louis XIV's enormous power and influence, and many monarchs built replicas of their own as a statement of their equality with Louis XIV. Examples include Emp. Leopold's Schönbrunn in Vienna, King Charles XI's Royal Palace in Sweden, and Prince Eugene's Summer and Winter Palaces in Vienna.
Minister of Finances under Louis XIV. Colbert worked towards better balance of trade in France by improved manufacturing in France. His efforts brought France back from near-bankruptcy and helped make France the most powerful European state. Despite his economic efforts, France still did lose lots of money due to the heavy spending of Louis XIV for his military campaigns.
Dutch overseas imperialism
After fighting for and winning independence from Spain - confirmed in 1648 by the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War - Netherlands entered its "golden age." At home, the Dutch were known for thrift, frugality and religious toleration. Religious toleration made good business sense. Amsterdam became a big trading center for foreign capital and investment; the Bank of Amsterdam drew business from all races of people. Fishing industry exploded. Merchant marine largest in Europe. Dutch had 16,000 merchant ships, half the entire European total. Because the Dutch dealt in bulk, nobody was able to come in and make money by selling items for cheaper. The Dutch East India Company, a joint stock company, formed in 1602, cut into the Portuguese trade in India. The Dutch captured and set up trading posts in the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, and Malacca. Extremely profitable - investors got 35% annual return. In 1621, the Dutch West India company started trading with Africa and South America. Trading with these continents brought the Dutch tons of wealth, and they ended up having the highest standard of living in Europe. While rest of Europe suffered from severe food inflation, the Dutch had plenty to eat & few food riots. Although their initial goal was commerce - trade in silk & spices - the Dutch got themselves involved in imperialism. In 1652, they founded Cape Town, which was a port where ships fueled up to travel across the Pacific. Dutch imperialism would later lead to centuries of racial conflict in South Africa. War with France and England in 1670's hurt the United Provinces of Netherlands. The War of the Spanish Succession drained Dutch financial resources and led to the beginning of Dutch economic decline.
In 1690, wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, a new theory about how humans learn and form ideas. Became a dominant text of the Enlightenment. Believed people were a blank slate (tabula rasa), in other words the surrounding environment would make you good or bad. Nurture not nature. In 1690, also wrote Second Treatise of Civil Government, which stated that people set up civil governments to protect life, liberty, and property. Any government that oversteps its proper function is a tyranny, against which people have natural right to rebel. This was his idea of natural rights, rights that are basic to all men. His beliefs were very popular in the colonies, probably due to the fact they wanted to break away from England.
Charles I attempted to govern without Parliament and by financing his government by arbitrary non-parliamentary levies, brought England to a crisis. He supported the high-church. policies of William Laud (archbishop of Canterbury). People feared a return to Roman Catholicism. Charles I was an intelligent man, but many found him deceitful, dishonest, and treacherous, and they did not trust him. He dissolved Parliament in 1629 after arguing over the right to collect customs duties on wine, wool, and over what the Commons perceived as religious innovations. From 1629-1640, he ruled without Parliament. Many considered his arbitrary taxes illegal. (e.g. Tax, or "ship money," for coastal defense levied on all counties, including inland ones.) In 1640, Scots rebelled against Laud's policies; Charles I forced to summon Parliament to get money to put down rebellion. Parliament believed taxation without consent was arbitrary, absolute despotism.
Charles was forced by the Commons to summon Parliament every three years (Triennial Act). When Irish revolted, due to economic, political, religious oppression, Parliament wouldn't give Charles I and army; they didn't trust him. Civil war ensued. King and Parliament each drew up their own armies. In 1649, Charles was executed on the charge of high treason, a severe blow to notion of divine right monarchy.
Controlled the army that defeated the royal forces and controlled the government. He constituted a military dictatorship. In theory, a commonwealth, or republican government, was proclaimed. Parliament had legislative power. The army had prepared a constitution (Instrument of Government ) that invested executive power in a lord protector, Cromwell, and a council of state. After repeated disputes, Cromwell tore the document up and continued the standing army and proclaimed quasi-martial law. He divided England into 12 military districts each governed by a major general. Cromwell favored religious tolerance, and the Instrument of Government gave all Christians (except Roman Catholics) the right to practice their faith. In 1649 he crushed a rebellion at Drogheda, Ireland with merciless savagery, leaving a legacy of Irish hatred for England. His regulation of the nation's economy was similar to absolutism. He enforced a Navigation Act requiring English goods be transported on English ships. He welcomed the immigration of Jews because of their skills. Died in 1658.
During the "Interregnum," the period between kings in 1649 and 1660, Oliver Cromwell's reign was called the "Protectorate" despite his military dictatorship. (See Above)
Absolutism is a form of government where all power is vested in one ruler, based on the notion of the divine right of kings. Sovereignty is embodied in the person of the monarch, who has both power (the ability) and authority (the legal right) to act. Absolute rulers attempt to control all competing groups within their territories - religious, political and social - however, they often lacked financial and military resources to do so completely. Therefore, absolutism is not the same as totalitarianism, a 20th c. phenomenon, where every aspect of state life is controlled by the government. Absolute rulers had to find ways to either suppress or work with the nobility, their greatest threat to power. Absolutist states were characterized by three things: centralized bureaucracies, professional standing armies, and state-directed economies. In centralized bureaucracies, civil servants reported directly to the monarch. Bureaucratic offices were owned by the state and temporarily bestowed on the holder, rather than private property or means of getting rich. Absolutist states maintained permanent standing armies, no longer disbanding them in peacetime. Absolutist rulers included Louis XIV of France, Peter the Great of Russia, Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire, and Frederick William I of Prussia. Louis XIV of France best personifies absolutism. For the first time in history, all the institutions and powers of the state were embodied in one person, the monarch, representative of God on earth.
The Glorious Revolution
During the reign of Charles II, in exchange for 200,000 pounds a year, the king made a secret deal with Louis XIV of France, to slowly re-Catholicize England and convert to Catholicism personally. When news of the deal leaked out, there was a huge outcry of anti-Catholic hysteria, since Charles II lacked an heir and his Catholic brother James II would succeed him. When James II did take the throne, he immediately realized England's worst anti-Catholic fears, voiding the Test Act by appointing Catholics to government positions and declaring religious freedom for all (including Catholics). Bishops revolted against the king's absolutist declaration. When James II had a baby boy, threatening a new Catholic dynasty in England, the throne was offered to James' Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, Prince William of Orange. James, his wife and son fled to France, where they lived at the court of Louis XIV. (James II fled to France where he camped out with his bff Louis XIV. They chilled, ate amazing food and knocked back some French wine.) William of Orange and Mary II started their very successful reign of England. During this time there was no bloodshed. Thus, it was named the Glorious Revolution.
The siege of Vienna in 1683
In 1529, the Ottoman Turks had nearly captured Vienna and held massive territory, including the Balkans, most of Hungary, and parts of southern Russia. The Ottoman Empire was greatly feared and misunderstood by western Europe. The Turks were old foes of the Catholic Habsburgs. The siege of Vienna in 1683 was when the Ottoman Turks tried to take over Vienna once more with a massive army. After holding out for two months, Vienna was saved at last moment by a mixed force of Habsburg, German and Polish troops. The Turks were driven back, and the Habsburgs conquered almost all of Hungary and Transylvania (part of present-day Romania). This battle was significant because someone finally put a stop to the domination of the Turks. Before this battle the Turks were conquering any land that they pleased in Eastern and Central Europe. It was also significant, because the Habsburgs emerged greatly strengthened, setting themselves up to unify their territories. However, they were ultimately unable to create a centralized, absolutist, unified state.
The Habsburgs were a wealthy aristocratic Austrian family that fought in many wars and battles, and owned many territories throughout Europe roughly during the time of the sixteenth to seventeenth century. They were the hereditary emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, who desired absolutist Catholic rule over their sprawling territories. The most prominent of the Habsburgs resided in Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), they failed in their attempt to impose Catholic rule over the HRE and turn it into a real, unified state; Germany was splintered into 300 principalities, many of them now Protestant. Having failed in their attempt to control Germany, they turned their state-building inward and eastward. Bohemia had already been firmly conquered and Catholicized; the Habsburg king Ferdinand II crushed a revolt by the (Protestant) Bohemian estates at the battle of White Mountain. The Habsburgs were in constant conflict with the Ottoman Turks over the territory of Hungary. In 1683, the Turks attacked the Habsburgs and the Habsburgs came out victorious.
In 1713, the Habsburg king, Charles VI proclaimed the Pragmatic Sanction, which attempted to hold together three distinct territories ruled by the Habsburgs - Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary. The Pragmatic Sanction stated that all Habsburg holdings must be passed down intact to a single heir, who could be a female. In the early 1700s, the Hungarians rebelled against Habsburg absolutist rule and were defeated. However, Charles VI restored many Hungarian rights and Hungary never fell under the Habsburg's absolutist rule.
Frederick William the Great Elector
Frederick William was an elector of Brandenburg who was supposed to help choose the Holy Roman Emperor; he was known as the Great Elector. The Great Elector had taken huge steps to unite Prussia into a royal absolutist government during the Seventeenth century. A member of the Hohenzollern family, Frederick inherited the original territory of Prussia (when a junior branch of the family died out), Brandenburg (around Berlin), and scattered principalities along the Rhine in western Germany. He strove to unite his holdings into a single, absolutist state. During his rule, Frederick overcame the Prussian nobility called the Junkers and the Prussian and Brandenburgian Estates in order to institute absolutist rule. With the threat of war on many sides, he had done this by forcing the estates to accept permanent taxation without consent, and as a result the power of the Estates and the Junkers decreased. Second, he played the landed nobility against the town governments, who might otherwise have united against Frederick's power grab. The nobles accepted a compromise, letting taxes fall on the towns instead of the rural nobility. Prussia was finally united into to a single state, in which King Frederick William I strengthened and solidified royal absolutism.
Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher and theorist (1588-1679) who believed that people are inherently cruel and greedy and that only absolute sovereignty could resolve the problems caused by greedy humans. He believed the central human drive is desire for power; left to themselves, humans will compete violently for power and wealth. He also wrote the Leviathan, which stated that sovereignty is derived from the people of society, who transfer it to the monarchy through a social contract. Society is like a human body, where the people are parts of the body and the monarch is the head. Once the contract is accepted, just as a body cannot cut off its own head, society cannot rise up against its king. He was deeply shocked by the beheading of Charles I. His book had also stated that the power of the ruler was absolute, however, kings did not rule by divine right. As expected, the English population did not like his beliefs; however, his views along with those of John Locke and Montesquieu largely influenced the U.S. constitution.
Mercantilism is the collection of government policies for the regulation of economics activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state. So, a mercantilist is someone who believes in these view of mercantilism.
In seventeenth and eighteenth century economic theory, a nation's international power was thought to be based on its wealth, specifically its gold supply. Because, mercantilist theory held, resources were limited, state intervention was needed to secure the largest part of a limited resource. To accumulate gold, a country always had to sell more goods abroad than it bought.
Jean Baptiste Colbert, a financial genius and the financial advisor of Louis XIV, did not invent mercantilism, but he rigorously applied it to France. He believed that the wealth and economy of France should serve the state. Colbert wanted to make the country self-sufficient and to boost French exports. He used subsidies for domestic industries, tariffs, and policies to attract foreign craftsmen. Colbert also supported and gave special privileges to old and new industries (cloth, rug and tapestry, mirrors, looms, steel, firearms, etc.) and encouraged foreign craftsmen to come to France.
military in Europe in the early 1700s
In contradiction to medieval armies which were conditionally raised by feudal lords, absolute monarchs had permanent standing armies. They were drawn together by the monarchs, and scattered where convenient. The armies were greatly feared to the point where others were afraid to fight them, very compulsive, and cleverly worked the system, even with the use of secret police.
Two fundamental entities regarding Rene Descartes' view of the world was called Cartesian Dualism. Descartes' analysis eventually led to him categorizing everything to either mind or matter, or more literally, spiritual or physical.
Russians & westernizing
Peter the Great westernized Russian armies. He created a long series of practical but far-reaching measures designed to increase state power, strengthen his armies, and gain victory. Peter greatly increased the service requirements of the commoners and decreed that every nobleman was required to serve in the army or in the civil administration -- for life. He also created schools and universities to produce skilled technicians and experts for his more modern army and government. One of his most hated reforms required five years of compulsory education away from home for every young nobleman. Peter established an interlocking military-civilian bureaucracy with fourteen ranks. He also searched out talented foreigners and placed them in his service.
Catherine the Great successfully achieved her goal to bring the western culture into backward Russia. To do so, she imported Western architects, sculptors, musicians, and intellectuals. She bought masterpieces of Western art and patronized the philosophes.
nomadic tribes from present-day Mongolia
temporarily unified in the thirteenth century by Chinggis Khan, one of history's greatest conquerors. In five years his armies subued all of China
successors turned westward
Mongol army (Golden Horde) - extremely savage
ruled the eastern Slavs for more than two hundred years
capital of East Russia before Peter the Great moved it to St. Petersburg
Peter the Great
Took control in 1689
Made many reforms
Absolutist interested in military power
Maintained alliance with Austria and Poland against Ottoman Empire
Charles XII of Sweden defeated Peter At Battle of Narva in 1700
Peter was leader in Northern War (1700-1721)
Required nobles to serve in army
Established a standing army of peasants with special forces of Cossacks and foreigners
Peter made Russian serfdom more oppressive
Russia won Battle of Poltava in 1709
Russia gained new territory, Estonia and present-day Latvia
established St. Petersburg
Founded by Peter the Great
Swedish fortress at location
Peter took fortress in 1702
Modern Baroque city
Became new Russian capital instead of Moscow
Built after Russia won Battle of Poltava in 1709
A fortress, a port, shipyards, and a Russian navy were established there
Architecture was influenced by Western Europe
Broad, straight, stone roads
All buildings conformed to strict architectural regulations
Each class lived in a certain section of the city
Peter used methods of autocracy to establish city
Peasants were drafted to work on city
Population of 300,000 in 1782
Called sultans, most notable was Suleiman the Magnificent
Owned all agricultural land
Defended peasants from officials so they could afford taxes and support
More tolerant of other religions than other Europeans
Created millet system: different regions had different religious leaders who supported the Ottoman Empire
After Suleiman's death absolutism decreased, weak sultans followed
Duchy of Prussia ( now?)
The Duchy of Prussia was located in present-day Germany.
As a result of the Enlightenment, France witnessed a sudden explosive growth in book consumption in the early 1700s - Influenced the "Reading Revolution"
Number of religious books legally published in Paris declined significantly
Proportion of legally published books about the arts and sciences surged
France's unpredictable but significant censorship of certain books caused many books to be printed abroad and then smuggled into the country
The majority of French books produced between 1750 and 1789 came from foreign publishing companies located outside France
This illegal book trade featured growth of denunciations of high political figures and inappropriate works
Frederick William I
Frederick William I - King of Prussia (1713 - 1740)
Known as the "Soldiers King"
Originally was known as Elector Frederick III (1688 - 1713)
Established Prussian absolutism
Instilled military values into Prussian society
He believed that the welfare of the king depended on the army above all else
At first he tried to get rid of the Junkers
to make peace with them, they became the officer class
Built a strong, first-rate army:
he had bizarre love for tall soldiers
he had a violent temper
Prussia's army became the fourth largest army by 1740
Best army in Europe
he hated to use his army for fear of losing men
Created a strong centralized bureaucracy
Honest and conscientious army
Administered the country & tried to develop it economically
Junkers were the nobility and landowning class who dominated the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia in the 1600s. King Frederick William wanted power from the Junkers and in his early years he wanted to destroy them. Frederick William forced the Estates to accept the taxation for his army. The Junkers became the officer caste under King Frederick William I. This allowed them to command the peasants in the army as well as on the estates.
Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law, developed in the 17th century. Constitutionalism is the balance between authority and power of the government and rights and liberty of the subjects. A constitution must have the government's respect and the state must govern by those laws. In a constitutional state, the sovereign power resides in the electorate and is exercised by representatives. Unlike a democracy, not all people participate, only the representatives vote. England and Holland evolved into the constitutional state. In England, the law was made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the Crown. When Charles I tried to rule without the help of Parliament he brought his country to a crisis.
Totalitarianism controls all the pieces of a society such as art, education, religion, the economy, and politics in the interests of the state. Totalitarian rule is total regulation, it evolved in the twentieth century. Absolute monarchs could not achieve this because they lacked the financial and military resources to do so.
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV named 150 towns throughout France in which Protestants could practice
revoked by Louis XIV (1685)
His new law ordered destruction of churches, closing of schools, Catholic baptising of Huguenots, and exile of Huguenot pastors who refused to renounce their faith
As a result of the revocation, Louis XIV persecuted some of his most loyal and skilled subjects, forced others to flee, and provoked an outrage of Protestant Europe
Galileo Galilei pg 598-601
poor Florentinian nobleman, first marked for a religious career
became professor of mathematics (1589)
new ideas of motion
greatest achievement: the experimental method (using experiments to learn rather than hypothesizing)
proved a uniform force produce a uniform acceleration
formulated law of inertia: an object continues in motion forever, unless it stopped by an external force
made a telescope for himself (DID NOT INVENT IT) and discovered the first four moons of Jupiter- also provided new evidence for Copernican theory
employed by the Medici grand dukes of Tuscany in Florence
Pope Urban VIII permitted him to write about different systems of the world, as long as he did not judge which actually existed
published, in Italian, Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World (1632) openly mocked the views of Aristotle and Ptolemy and supported Copernicus
tried for heresy by papal inquisitors - imprisoned threatened tortured
Frederick II (the Great)
aka Frederick the Great of Prussia (1740-1786)
when Charles VI of Austria died, (1740) his daughter Maria Theresa inherited, and Frederick invaded her German province of Silesia
War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)- gained all of Sylesia, and population doubled → Prussia became a great European power
Seven Years war (1756-1763) - alliance between Austria, France, Russia, wanted to conquer Prussia, however, Peter III of Russia called off attack
believed humane policies might strengthen state: religious and philosophical tolerance, improved schools, simplified laws, torture abolished, reconstruction, and monarchy in terms of results
tried to change social structure, rejected serfdom in abstract, but accepted it in practice, extended privileges of nobility
did not listen to Moses Mendelssohn who argued for religious toleration, Jewish freedom, and civil rights
The Scientific Revolution
Who: Nicolaus Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Sir Francis Bacon, René Descartes
What:the rise of modern science through experimentation and precise mathematics
precise knowledge of the physical world from observations, constant patterns, and math; rational thinking (experimental method)
heliocentric view of the universe (sun center) Copernicus
increased competition in the scientific community
changed old views of a geocentric universe from Aristotle (Earth at the center of celestial spheres), different laws for Earth and heavens, and use of experiments instead of speculation
Where: Royal Society in England, which had an international impact on Western society; other societies in Florence, Paris, and Berlin
How/ Causes: medieval universities taught philosophy, physics, and astronomy; navigational problems; instruments
Who: Greek philosopher, writer, mathematician
What: founded the Academy in Athens where Aristotle and Alexander the Great went to school
Theory of Forms
education vital to building a 'good' society
believed government was cruel
When: 427 B.C.E -348 B.C.E
Where: Athens, Greece
Why: to help scholars create a better government in Greek city-states (beginning of modern democracy)
Who: ancient astronomer (2nd century A.D.)
What: made rules to explain irregularities in planet movement
many 15th and 16th century professors used his rules - Copernicus found them to be occasionally inaccurate and cumbersome
believed in a geocentric universe like Aristotle
Where: lived in Alexandria in Egypt but influenced other European professors
his rules helped astrologers and stargazers track planets with more accuracy
Who:4th century BC Greek philosopher
Ideas recovered in Middle Ages
Motionless Earth at center of universe
10 transparent crystal spheres - the celestial spheres
Beyond 10th was Heaven
Distinguished celestial spheres and earth (sublunar)
Spheres - perfect, incorruptible fifth essence
Light elements - air and fire
Heavy elements - water and earth
Uniform force moved an object; object would stop when force removed
Mostly accepted for 2k years
explained what could be seen
his views aligned with Christianity
-World view in 18th century
-Large role in shaping modern mind
-Grew out of ideas:
-diverse and conflicting
competed for attention of well-educated readers
-Three main ideas:
-Natural science could/should be used to examine/understand life
-Nothing accepted on faith
-Rationalism led to conflict with church
-Sci. method capable of discovering laws of human society + those of nature
-Social science born
-Enlightenment thinkers: possible for humans to create better societies with better people
-Strengthened by some modest improvements in economic/social life in 18th century
-Profound secularism, impact on urban middle class and aristocrats
-Low appeal with poor/peasants
-Studied church law and astronomy
-Noticed how professional astronomers depended for their most accurate calculation on the work of Ptolemy
-In youth, interested in astrology; felt that Ptolemy's cumbersome/inaccurate rules detract from God's majesty
-Prefered Greek Idea: Sun center of universe
-Never questioned Aristotelian ideas
-Stars/Planets revolved around fixed sun
-Published Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres the year he died
-Enormous scientific/religious implications
-Stars at rest; nightly movement because of Earth's rotation
-Destroyed main reason for believing in crystal spheres
-Suggested universe of enormity
-Earth just another planet; destroyed basic idea of aristotelian physics - earthly world ≠ heavenly
-Attacked by Protestants especially
-Slow reaction caused by slow progress
-Lived in time for "radical renovation"
Who: Johannes Kepler, assistant of Tycho Brahe; was medieval figure;
What: organized Brahe's mountain of observations; came up with three laws of planetary motion based on Copernican theory/ hypothesis; unraveled planetary motion:
orbits of planet around the sun are elliptical rather than circular
planets do not move at uniform speed in their orbits
the time a planet takes to make its complete orbit is precisely related to its distance from the Sun
When: 1571 - 1630 (lifetime)
Why: to contribute to the spirit of the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment
How: see "What"
Influences: assistant of Brahe; did same time as Galileo Galilei
Who: Issac Newton
What: created a new synthesis; a single explanatory system that comprehends motion on both the earth and skies; published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia); created law of universal gravitation, - every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship; whereby the force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
Where: born into lower English gentry; attended Cambridge University
When: 1660s - 1680s
Why: fascinated by alchemy; sought elixir of life, intellectual genius; incredible powers of concentrations
How: obtained a professorship; studied optics for many years; returned to physics in 1684 for 18 intensive months; sought to combine the astronomy of Copernicus, as corrected by Kepler's Laws, with physics of Galileo and his predecessors through the law of universal gravitation; unified into a majestic system
Influence: combined the research of previous scientists; highly praised by Voltaire;
Who: Francois Marie Arouet; most representative philosopher
What: wrote various works praising England and popularizing English scientific progress; Newton was history's greatest man, portrayed Louis as dignified leader of his age in Age of Louis XIV; admired Frederick the Great; believed that a good monarch was the only hope for good gov't, because human beings "weren't worthy to govern themselves."; only believed that the citizen should depend on the laws for absolute equality in spite of strength; had radical philosophical and religious positions; believed in religious tolerance; "love God and neighbor as yourself"
Where: Cirey, France
When: 1740s - 1750s
Why: he was a philosopher; deeply influenced by his continuous conflict with legal injustice and unequal treatment before the law; lived in England for three years; enthusiastic for English institutions; long time companion with intellectually gifted woman Gabrielle-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet
How: mixed glorification of science and reason with appeal for better individuals and institutions
Influence: influenced by French and American revolutions; had a major influence on other philosophes
Also known as pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives.
-Rousseau believed in direct democracy
-rejected miracles, mysteries, prophecies, and other fundamentals of revealed Christianity and sought to fashion a natural religion that accorded with reason and science
-they attempted to adapt the Christian traditions the new science
-influenced by late 17th cent critics of traditional christianity (French Pierre Bayle and English freethinkers)
-Voltaire was a Deists
- believed we each have an inner voice which is our conscience and it tells us when we are doing good or bad.
-civilization trains us to ignore it
-people are born corrupt
-important forerunner of the Romantic movement
-believed general will is sacred and absolute and his theory appealed to democrats and nationalists after 1789
-drawing rooms that rich elite women met in to exchange ideas.
-famous salon, Madame geoffrin, created a twice a week meeting salon that courted Fontenelle and Montesquieu
-salons became informal schools for younger women to learn from experienced older women
-Allowed critical thinking and questioning of ideas and influenced public opinion
-Believed they were bringing the light of knowledge to the ignorant people in the Age of Enlightenment
- Intellectuals that came about around the time of the American Revolution 1775
-Philosophe is the french word for philosopher
-French philosophes were one reason for Enlightenment reaching highest in France by asking fundamental philosophical questions
-Believed common people were doomed to superstition and confusion because they lacked money and leisure
Habsburg Emperor Joseph II
-ruled Austria 1780-1790 and known as the revolutionary emperor who introduced major reformed
-controlled Catholic church closely in attempt to produce better citizens
-granted religious tolerance for protestants and Jews
-got rid of serfdom in 1781 and in 1789 made all peasant labor have cash payments to peasants
-died early and the empire was in chaos causing his brother, who took over the crown, Leopold II to cancel all of Joseph's new reforms to gain order
The Parliament of Paris
The Parliament of Paris was the chief judicial body under the ancien régime. The parliament consisted of a number of separate chambers: the central pleading chamber, the Chambre des Requêtes (to deal with petitions) and the Chambre des Enquêtes (to handle inquests); the Chambre de la Tournelle (to settle criminal cases); and finally the Chambre de l'Édit (to process Huguenot affairs). The Parliament of Paris represented the people of France. They constantly challenged the power of the royalty, and protected the liberty of the people.
Catherine the Great
Who: Catherine the Great of Russia
What: The absolute empress of Russia who became empress after plotting against, and killing her husband, Peter III. She set three goals. First, to to bring back sophisticated culture of western Europe back to Russia, second to have domestic reform, and her last goal was territorial expansion.
How: For her first goal, she brought back western architects, sculptors, intellects, and musicians to westernize the thinking of Russia. For her second goal, she made better laws. For her last goal, she took over parts of Poland.
Immanuel Kant (1624-1804) was a German philosopher and professor in eastern Prussia. He argued freedom of press, and he thought that if thinkers had the opportunity to print their ideas freely, the Enlightenment would surely follow. He also believed that Frederick the Great of Prussia was an enlightened monarch because he allowed freedom of press.
This is the general theory of inductive reasoning. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) formalized the empirical method used by Brahe and Galileo before him. He thought the empirical method would result in more knowledge and highly practical, useful knowledge. He also thought that researchers shouldn't think and theorize about rocks or leaves if they want to learn about it, but collect specimens and compare and analyze them.
This was the emergence of modern science, or precise knowledge of physical world based on experimental observations and sophisticated mathematics. These new ideas in the sciences and mathematics influenced views on society and nature. Some historians say that this was the foremost cause of change in the view of the world. This modern science started in the 17th century.
John Locke #2
(1632-1704) He said that people set up civil government to protect life, liberty and property. The Glorious Revolution used Locke's Second Treatise of Civil Government. He said that a government that oversteps protecting Life, Liberty and Property becomes a tyranny, and should then be overthrown. John Locke was also the great spokesman for the Liberal English Revolution of 1688 to 1689. Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) was a cause of European intellectual turmoil. This set forth a new theory of how humans learn and form new ideas and rejected the ideas of Descartes. One other thing that Locke said was that the human mind at birth was like a blank slate, or Tabula Rasa. He believed that human development determined by education, for good or evil.
In the Spirit of Laws
Who: by baron de Montesquieu
inspired by example of physical sciences
set out to apply critical method to problem of government in this study
it is a complex comparative study of republics, monarchies, and despotisms
a great pioneering inquiry in emerging social sciences
treatise on political theory
showed that forms of government were shaped by history, geography, and customs and focused on the conditions that would promote liberty and prevent tyranny
1748 during the Enlightenment period
personal interest; like many members of the high French nobility, he was dismayed that royal absolutism had triumphed in France under Louis XIV
inspired by example of physical sciences to study history and politics
Relation to other terms:
made by Montesqueiu
important document of the Enlightenment
Who:Baron de Montesquieu
What:one of the greatest philosophes
wrote indirect attacks on government, church etc in novels, plays, histories, and philosophies with double meanings to spread message to public
wrote The Persian Letters(1721)
influential social satire
amusing letters in the perspective of Persian travelers who see European customs in unique ways
cleverly criticize existing practices and beliefs
wrote The Spirit of Laws(1748)
see above #72
separation of powers
argued that despotism could be avoided if there was a separation of powers
political power divided and shared by a variety of classes and legal estates holding unequal rights and privileges
strong independent upper class = especially important bc in order to prevent the abuse of power, "power checks power"
admired English balance of power among king, houses of Parliament, and independent courts
believed that in France, the 13 high courts protected liberty against royal despotism
constitutions of US in 178 and France in 1791 largely based on his theory
Relation to other terms:wrote the Spirit of Laws
one of the greatest philosophes in Enlightenment
law of inertia
What:stated that rest was not the natural state of objects
an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force
basis of new physics in 17th cent
When: early 1600s
Why:examine motion and mechanics
Relation to other terms:
first of Newton's 3 laws
defied/refuted Aristotelian physics
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was a polish clergy man and very important astronomer.
-He studied church law and astronomy when he was young
-He felt that Ptolemy's old laws detracted from the majesty of a perfect ruler.
-So, never questioning Aristotelian belief in crystal spheres, he theorized that the stars and planets revolved around a fixed sun.
-He didn't publish this (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) until the year of his death (1543).
-His theory is famously called the Copernican Hypothesis.
-The Copernican Hypothesis had many religious and political implications:
It put the stars at rest, which destroyed the main reason for believing in crystal spheres capable of moving the stars around the earth.
It suggested a universe of staggering size
Destroyed the idea that the earthly word was different from the heavenly one, which made people wonder where heaven was.
These ideas brought many attacks from religious leaders, especially protestants, and the Copernican Hypothesis was not widely accepted until later.
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) in Germany was Tycho Brahe's assistant, who went much further with Brahe's data due to Tycho Brahe's limited understanding of mathematics.
-He came from a minor german noble family.
-He believed that the universe was built on mystical mathematical relationships
-He formulated three famous laws of planetary motion:
1 -Orbits of the planets around the sun are elliptical rather than circular.
2 -Planets do not move at uniform speed in their orbits.
3 -Time planet takes to make complete orbit is related to it's distance from the sun.
Whereas other people (such as Copernicus) had speculated, Kepler was able to prove mathematically the relations of a sun centered solar system, which demolished the old system of Aristotle and Ptolemy.
Galileo: Math Professor, Astronomer (1564-1642) in Italy
-Created law of inertia: An object at rest stays at rest, an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
-Believed Earth revolved around the sun
-With his acceleration experiment he showed that a uniform force (gravity) produced a uniform acceleration
-Consolidated the experimental method: rather than speculate what might happen, he conducted a controlled experiment on what did happen
-tried for heresy by Papal Inquisition
Tycho Brahe: Danish Nobleman, Astronomer, Astrologer, Alchemist (1546-1601)
-Born in Scania
-Last major astronomer to work without a telescope for observations
-His data helped Kelper develop the Three Laws of Planetary Motion
-Was sponsored to build the Uraniborg (Danish Astronomical Observatory)
-Founded manufactories such as paper-making to help make his astronomical instruments more stable
-Became imperial astronomer in Bohemia after disputes with Danish king Christian IV
Sir Isaac Newton: English physicist (1642-1727)
-Super religious (Anglican)
-went to Cambridge University
-Fascinated by alchemy, called the "last of the magicians"
-law of universal gravitation: every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship, whereby the force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
-Wrote Principia - Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
-Formed the Newton Synthesis which combined the ideas of Kepler, Galileo, and Copernicus.
-Built the first reflecting telescope
the Pragmatic Sanction
Who: Charles VI
What: An edict that stated Habsburg possessions were never to be divided and were to be passed intact to a single heir
When: April 19th, 1713
Why: Charles Vi wanted to ensure that the Habsburg hereditary possessions could be inherited by his daughter (Maria Theresa)
the millet system
Who: The Ottoman Empire
What: A system in the Ottoman Empire that enabled religious minorities (Christians, Jews) to freely practice their religion and these minorities could go their own law courts and be under Christian and Jewish laws, respectively, rather than the official Islamic law of the Ottoman Empire. In exchange, these religious minorities pledged allegiance to the Ottoman rulers and swore to defend the Empire in case of attack.
Why: To increase the number of emigration from people of different religious backgrounds, mainly Christian + Jewish craftsmen, and to increase the power of the Ottoman Empire through having a higher population of people
The Province was owned by Maria Theresa (of Austria) she was the daughter of the recently passed Charles VI who died in 1740. As soon as Theresa was appointed as the new ruler, Frederick invaded Silesia. This forced Theresa to go to war with Frederick in the War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748). Theresa had gotten obliterated and she controlled very little of it after the battle in 1742. Almost all of Silesia was given to the Prussians. In this short amount of time, Prussias population had doubled making their power tower above all of the German States.
Created by Catherine the Great of Russia. This was said to be her greatest accomplishment. Between 1768 and 1772, Catherine had won many battles that could have disturbed the power in Russia and Austria. Frederick of Prussia then made a proposal in which turkey would be left alone, but Prussia, Austria, and Russia could take a huge part of land from Poland. Catherine was the first to take a huge piece of land from Poland in 1772 and the other two happened in 1793 and 1795. These partitions completely took Poland off the map.
The Edict of Nantes
Who: The Edict of Nantes was issued by Henry IV of France.
What: A treaty granted for the Huguenots
Why: It granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (Huguenots) rights in a predominantly catholic nation. In the Edict, Henry aimed primarily to promote civil unity. He created opportunity for secularism and tolerance. It ended the religious wars that had afflicted France during the second half of the 16th century. It was revoked by Louis XIV (1685)
Who: King of France
What: Protestant, Huguenot
Why: He was disliked by the public which was evident in his 16 assassination attempts. He inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 due to the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion. He led Protestant forces against the royal army.
Who: Monarch of Valois and King of France
What: Became king France and was known as the "Father of the people"
Why: Louis XII did not encroach on the power of local governments or the privileges of the nobility. This was very unusual since monarchs at the time were attempting to achieve absolutism. He was also famous for reduction of the tax known as taille, legal reforms, and civil peace within France.
Ruled France from 1774-1792. He came to the throne at 20 years of age, and was eager to please his people. Quoted to have said "What I should like most is to be loved." Dismissed Maupeou, who was chancellor of France and had tried to get rid of parliament. Under Louis XIV's rule, all the old parlements were reinstated. Married to Marie Antoinette and was the last French monarch.
Lasted from 1773-1775. Emilian Pugachev started a rebellion with the serfs against Catherine II and claimed that he was the "true tsar" of Russia. He issued false decrees that abolished serfdom, taxes, and army service. Many joined him and slaughtered landlords and nobles along the way. Catherine the Great was no match for him until he was turned against by one of his followers and killed. Catherine changed her policies from condemning serfdom, to giving her nobles absolute power. She saw the serfs as a clear danger and threat that had to be oppressed.
the English Parliament
After the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215, the king of England could not do much of anything (particularly tax) without the consent of the royal council, which eventually became the English Parliament. Parliament restricted the monarchy's power, and, after the Glorious revolution in 1688, the power of monarchs was further restricted by a newly created constitution.
When- Spain prospered in earlier 16th century and power declined when disaster struck in 1590 and later on in the years
Where- Spain(kingdom of Castile)
Mexico and Peru--Spain gained silver from these countries
England and Netherlands(Dutch)--interfered with silver trade between Spain and Mexico/Peru
Philip III-- handed gov. over to even lazier duke of Lerma who only used it to advance his personal and familial wealth
Philip IV-- left management of several of his kingdoms to Gaspar de Guzman (duke of Olivares)
Charles II-- mentally defective and sexually impotent
Selfish aristocrats not wanting to be taxed
Poor and tiny middle class
What- Spain was the ideal absolutist country but its power declined during the late 16th century
Spain had permanent bureaucracy (Gov. where important info made by state officials not elected representatives) staffed by professionals
Had a standing army
Forced national taxes (servicios) mostly on the poor.
Spains flow of gold and mostly silver stopped when England and the Netherlands started trading with the silver suppliers (Mexico and Peru).
Spain had a tiny middle class from its expulsion of the Jews and Moors, so the national taxes that fell upon the poor was not efficient as they raised the price of taxes on the already impoverished middle class
Spain faced military difficulties against France and the treaty of their wars (Treaty of Pyrenees of 1659) marked the end of great Spanish power
"balance of power" principle
When-Through out history but specific example...
Wars took place in the Netherlands
The French (Louis XIV) and Spanish
vs. The English, dutch, Austrians, and Prussians
What-Balance of Power
The idea that one power cannot gain too much strength in which this power will be taken down by other allied powers
War of Spanish Successions
Why-Spanish king Charles II died without an heir, and French king Louis XIV accepted rule of Spain
Other countries didn't want France to become more powerful, so they formed allies to take France down (balance of power)
French classicism in 17th century (and before)
Louis XIV supported all of the following classicists
orchestra works in restrained austerity
Composed court ballets
His operatic productions gave powerful influence throughout Europe
Harpsichord and organ works possessed regal grandeur (monarch splendor)
Solemn, religious music entertained the French king
Payed for Te Deums, Hyms of thanksgiving
Jean Baptiste Poquelin or "Moliere"
Playwright, stage manager, director actor
Produced brilliant comedies-- careful social observation was structure of plays
Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme
Les Femmes Savantes
Jean Baptiste Racine
Analyzed power of love
Based plays off of Greek/Roman legends
Consisted the conflict of good and evil
French art that with the aspects of discipline, balance, and restraint
Official style of King Louis XIV's court
Definition: "the basic administrative unit of 17th- and 18th-century France. It was first established in the late 14th century to organize the collection of royal revenues. In the 15th century, four generalites covered most of France. An edict of 1542 established their number at 16, each under a receveur ("receiver") general (Dictionary.com)
-generalites aka districts
-Cardinal Richelieu best reflected in the administration system he established
-Cardinal Richelieu extended the use of royal commissioners
-Intendants = royal commissioners
-Cardinal Richelieu divided France into 32 generalites
-each generalite, a royal intendant had a commission to perform specific tasks.
-tasks were judicial, policing and financial
-intendants transmitted information from local communities→Paris & delivered royal orders from their capital to their generalites
labor shortages- peasants in western Europe and peasants in eastern Europe
Labor Shortages-when absolute monarchy took shape in Eastern Europe in 17th Century, it built on social and economic foundations Between 1400 and 1650, nobles and rulers reestablished serfdom in the eastern lands of Bohemia, Silesia, Hungary, Eastern Germany, Poland, Lithuania and Russia
In Eastern Europe:
the princes and the nobility reduced the importance of towns and the middle classes
The princes and the nobility, with the exception of the ottoman rulers the Balkans, rolled back the gains made by the peasantry in the High Middle Ages
The Princes and nobility reimposed a harsh serfdom on the rural masses
peasants lost their rights and freedom
1300's In Eastern Europe
a general improvement in peasant conditions had occurred in Eastern Europe; serfdom (slavery) all but disappeared
Peasants bargained freely with their landlords and moved as they pleased
social and economical developments headed in same direction through Europe in High Middle Ages
1500's In Eastern Europe
by 1500's in Eastern Europe, eastern peasants were well on their way to becoming serfs again
In Western Europe
Peasants won greater freedom
urban capitalist middle class continued its rise
many sided landlord reaction occurred as lords sought to solve their tough economic problems by more heavily exploiting the peasantry (Page 567) & this FAILED
by 1500, almost all of the peasants were free & in the rest of W Europe, serf obligations had declined
drop in population and process in 14th and 15th century caused labor shortages
Eastern landlords used political & police power to turn tables on peasants
lords made their kings issue laws that restricted the peasants time honored right of free movement = peasants could no longer leave to take advantage of better opportunity
lords took more of their peasants land and imposed heavier labor obligations
lords could command their peasants to work for them without pay as many as six days a week
The administration of justice in eastern Europe
From 1400-1650, peasants and townspeople lost their freedom, while nobility increased its power. From this, Austrian and Prussian monarchs were able to create absolutist states. Within these staes they were able to enforce their power through permanent standing armies, permanent taxes, and legislative bodies.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Written by John Locke in 1690. New theory on how humans learn and form ideas, rejected Descartes by saying humans are a blank tablet, "Tabula rasa." Plus, 3 natural rights: life, liberty, property. If the government does not protect these rights, people have the right to overthrow them.
Cossack bands in the Ukraine in the 16th and 17th centuries
Mostly formed while Ivan IV "the terrible" was ruling. Consisted of outlaw armies of peasants who fled to the wild to escape serfdom. However they did not really get much independence from the tsar. The tsar "solved" the forming of cossack armies by tying peasants to their serf holder and their land. "hereditary serfdom"
Peace of Utrecht
End of the War of the Spanish Succession
War ends in the peace treaty due to the being very expensive
Demonstrates balance of power
Effects of the Peace of Utrecht
Spain to decline in power
Spain focuses on expanding into the Americas
France expands its boundaries into Europe
British territories expanded into France and Germany
First big peace treaty with many nations
Experience with cooperation for Europe
Novel written by Miguel de Cervantes
First novel of the World
Reflects European society at the time
The word Quixotic developed from the title of the novel
meaning idealist but impractical
The term perfectly characterizes the seventeenth century motives of Spain
-wanted to "purify the anglican church of all roman catholic elements" including:
the position of the altar in the church
the use of wedding rings
-wanted to get rid of Bishops
-Archbishop of canterbury under Charles I
- tried to make all churches perform "elaborate rituals and rich ceremonials"
-wanted uniformity with the church services and the "Court of high commission"
-Tried to make scotland use an anglican prayer book(1637)which caused scotland to revolt against Charles I. Meaning he had to make up with parliament to get enough money to stop the revolts.
-Commonwealth or otherwise known as period was ruled by a form of republican government in England
-proclaimed when Charles I was beheaded in 1649 and the kingship was abolished.
-Commonwealth was established by Oliver Cromwell
-Power in early commonwealth placed mostly on Parliament and Council of State
-Oliver Cromwell appointed Lord Protector of a united "Commonwealth of England" in 1653 under the terms of the Instrument of Government (1653) made by his army
Republican government which was used during commonwealth, gave some power to people to elect other groups to make decisions for them
-legislative power was placed on the surviving members of the Parliament(decision making organization)
-executive power gave to the Council of State
-Oliver Cromwell's rule was declared in 1653 the "Protectorate"(Lord Protector of Commonwealth) although his rule was constituted by military dictatorship
-His rule consisted of his power through his army when his army defeated the royal forces that controlled the government
-Some of his accomplishments during his period of rule called "Protectorate" consisted of:
he tore up the document that gave the Parliament the sole power to raise taxes
he continued a standing army and declared the quasi-martial law,
he divided England into 12 military districts, in which each was governed by a major general, major generals took actions toward peace yet sometimes overrode their justices
he favored toleration of religion meaning state protection of many different Protestant sects
1646; he won a rebellion at Drogheda in Ireland , leaving with the Irish hatred for them not yet subsided
his regulation of England's economy typical with 17th century absolutism
he enforced Navigational Act requiring English goods to be transported on English ships
A book written by Thomas Hobbes stating that sovereignty is ultimately from the people who then transfer it to the monarch through implicit contract.
Second Treatise of Civil Government
The Second Treatise of Civil Government was written by John Locke and was what the Glorious Revolution found its best defense in. This book outlined Locke's ideas of more of a civilized society based upon contract theory and natural rights. It explored how if a government oversteps its proper function (protecting life, liberty and property), it becomes a tyranny and how citizens under a tyrannical government will rebel.
A Cabinet System is a form of government in which the leading ministers formulate a common policy and conduct the business of the country.
This evolved mostly in the eighteenth century in England. It was discontinued by George II, son of the Hanoverian king George I.
Definition: A form of government in which all people participate in government through franchise, or voting
different from constitutional government
in a constitutional government, power rests with the electorate, but not all people get to vote
in 1600s, mostly only upper class people were voting
most men couldn't vote until late 19th century
women couldn't vote until 20th century
States General (p556)
Republic of United Provinces of the Netherlands (seven northern provinces of Netherland after gaining independence from Spain) had new form of government
oligarchies of wealthy merchants (regents) handle political matters, while States General, or federal meeting, deals with foreign affairs such as war
States General had little power because decisions had to be approved by Estates
Stadholder is appointed by States General in each province as a representative
Holland ended up dominating states general and republic, so the Estates gathered at Holland's capital, the Hague
Stadholders (pg 555)
Definition: a representative
-Late 17th century→ 7 northern provinces of the Netherlands fought/won independence from Spain→ Republic of United Provinces of the Netherlands
-Within each province there were "regents", States General, and a stadholder
-States General→ appointed the stadholder in each province
-Highest executive→ 1) carried out ceremonial functions, 2) was responsible for defense/good order
-Sons of William the Silent, Maurice & WIlliam Louis→ held the office of stadholder in all 7 provinces
Dutch East India Company (pg 559)
-A joint stock company
-Made in 1602 by a group of regents of Holland
-Investors each received a % of the profits proportional to the amount of money they had put it
-Within half a century→ this company had cut heavily into Portuguese trading in East Asia
-Dutch seized the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, & Malacca→ established trading posts in each place
-1630s: DEIC was paying its investors about 35% annual return on their investments
-Dutch West India Company→ founded in 1621/ traded mostly with Latin America & Africa
-Initial purpose of both companies: commercial (import of spices/silks to Europe)
-Dutch found them involved in imperialist exploitation of parts of East Asia/Latin America w/ great success
The Habsburgs defeat in central europe, forced them to turn inward and eastward in an attempt for them to fuse their diverse holdings into a strong unified state. Bohemia had already taken this route during the Thirty Years War. Protestantism was a strong practice within the Czechs. The lesser Czech nobility was mainly protestant and they had great political power because they dominated the Bohemian estates. The Bohemian Estates were the representative body of different states, or legal orders, in Bohemia. In 1618, the Bohemian Estates had risen up in defense of Protestant RIghts. However, this revolt was overturned in 1620 at the battle of white mountain. Ferdinand II, the Habsburg king, reduced the power of the bohemian estates.
Between 1400 and 1650, nobles and rulers established serfdom in the eastern lands of Bohemia, Silesia, Hungary, eastern germany, Poland, Lithuania, and Russia. In general, eastern peasants lost their rights and freedoms. They became bound first to the land they worked and then, to the lords they served. The lords made made their kings and princes issue laws that restricted or eliminated the peasants right of free movement. Second, lords steadily took more and more of their peasant's land and imposed heavier labor obligations. Between 1500 and 1650, the social, legal, and economic conditions of peasants in eastern europe continued to decline. In prussia in 1653, peasants were subjected to hereditary subjugation- bound to their lords from one generation to the next as well as to the land. The legal re-establishment of permanent hereditary serfdom and become the common fate of all peasants. The consolidation of serfdom was accompanied by the growth of estate agriculture.
In Prussia in 1653, peasants were assumed to be tied to their lords in hereditary subjugation - bound to their lords from one generation to the next as well as to the land. Noble's power eventually went out of hand.
1) Lords made monarchs issue laws that didn't allow peasants to leave without the lord's permission.
2) Lords took more of their land and established heavier labor obligations.
Hereditary Subjugation was established or reestablished in Poland, Prussia, and Russia "PPR"
Leader of the Ottoman Empire. Had total control of all capital- there was no private property or hereditary nobility. Owned all agricultural land of the empire and exploited it as he saw fit according to the Ottoman political theory.
The sultan also defended peasant communities from greedy officials, so that they could afford to pay their taxes and support the state. The top ranks of bureaucracy were staffed by the Sultan's slave corps. Every year the the sultan levied a tax of one to three thousand male children on the conquered Christian populations in the Balkans. These and other slaves were raised in Turkey as Muslims and trained to fight and administer. The most talented slave rose to the top of the bureaucracy: the less fortunate formed the brave and skillful core of the Sultan's army, the so-called janissary corps
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent Weak with an alliance with Louis XIV of France, surrounded Vienna and laid siege to it in 1683, but the Habsburg defeated them, expanding into Hungary and Transylvania
Who: Proclaimed by Charles VI
What: the Habsburg possessions were never to be divided and were to always be passed intact to a single heir. Charles spent most of his reign trying to have this accepted by the various branches of the Habsburg family, the different Estates, and by the states of Europe. Attempted to join the separated Habsburg territories under a single monarch.
Where: kingdom of Bohemia
Why: to keep the nobility from manipulating Habsburg absolutism
Elector of Brandenburg
Who: Person, along with six others, who had ability to chose Holy Roman emperor, but had no military strength. The Hohenzollern family was able to rule Prussia through their positions as dukes and electors of Brandenburg.
What: a position that decided who became Holy Roman emperor
Where: Brandenburg, an area around Berlin
When: after 1400
Why: attempt to bring back princely power
Who: Many people in Eastern Europe and Russia still practice it.
What: Its an old, but still very popular Christian religion. It consists of 13 self-governing bodies. It has several different names for the same basic religion, depending on the location. Examples are the Greek Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church.
Where:Very popular in Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and Russia.
When: It started during Roman rule but it didn't reach its golden age till the Byzantine Empire.
Why: The religion was founded to continue Jesus and his apostle's teachings. In many ways it has become the standard of Christianity because of that.
Relations: Many wars between countries and much of politics was based on the Christian religion.
What: Russian nobility under Russian feudalism and tsardom
When: c. 1000 - 1700
Why: Their great power in Russia made Russian absolutism a slow and difficult process for the tsars.
Relations: They began to lose power under Ivan III and subsequent tsars. They lost their power to the service nobility, who had power and land from the tsars in exchange for military service. The boyars also attempted to take power from Ivan IV during his early reign, but Ivan the Terrible killed many of them in retaliation for his wife's death. Under Peter the Great, all nobles were required to serve in the army and required them to live in Saint Petersburg.
The Mongolian invasion and domination of Russia for about a 250 year period was also known as the Mongol Yoke. The people that were either non-slaves or artisans and craftsmen payed taxes to Russian princes who collected them for the Khan and if they did not pay the tax they would either be enslaved or sometimes killed. The peasants were also forced to pay taxes and the punishment for not paying was one of two things, either they were enlisted into the army or they were forced into slavery. Most of the skilled artisans and craftsmen were sent east to serve the Khan. It started as the Mongols created a Mongol state which was known as the Golden Horde. This state began just west of the Black Sea and ranged all the way to Siberia. In doing this they were also able to control part of Russia and the rest was ruled indirectly through local princes. A couple effects of the Mongolian Yoke was Russia not being able to connect with the Byzantine Empire therefore events such as the Renaissance and the rise of Absolutism never were able to reach Russia.
The Cossacks were outlaw armies that were trying to escape the rule of the tsar specifically during the time of Ivan the Terrible. In doing this they were able to gain independence far from the reach of the tsar's rule. They were peasants that wanted independence from the tsar because he was taxing them and forcing them to give him money that they simply did not have.
Stars remain in place
Universe was much larger than anticipated
Earth revolves around the Sun
Earthly world different from the heavenly one
Attacked by Catholics/Protestants
Proposed by Galileo
Involved actually performing experiments to achieve results, as opposed to theoretical methods
Involved running multiple experiments to come to a conclusion
Example was Galileo's acceleration experiment
Law of universal gravitation
Who: Invented by Sir Isaac Newton
What: FG=Gm1m2d2. Says that all objects are affected by a force of gravity from all other objects; this force is directly proportional to the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
a skeptical attitude; doubt as to the truth of something.: "these claims were treated with skepticism".
synonyms: doubt, doubtfulness, a pinch of salt
the theory that certain knowledge is impossible..
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