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89 terms

BIO PRE-IB SEM2 EXAM REVIEW

<p>&lt;p&gt;&amp;lt;p&amp;gt;Ms. Bitting Pre-Ib BIO :)&amp;lt;/p&amp;gt;&lt;/p&gt;</p>
STUDY
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macrophage
engulfs and kills pathogens.
neutrophil
engulfs and destroys pathogens.
natural killer cell
punctures infected cells.
helper T-cell
activates cytotoxic T cells.
cytotoxic T-cell
punctures labeled infected cells.
B-cell
labels invaders for destruction by macrophages.
plasma cell
releases antibodies.
memory cell
stores information about a pathogen.
allergy
a physical response to an antigen, which can be a common substance that produces little/no response in the general population.
antibiotic
a substance that inhibits the growth rate of or kills microrganisms.
antigen
a substance that stimulates an immune response.
antiviral drugs
medicines that cure/control virus infections.
bacillus
a rod-shaped bacterium.
capsid
a protein sheath that surrounds the nucleic acid core in a virus.
coccus
a sphere shaped bacterium.
conjugation
in algae and fungi, an exchange of genetic material that occurs between 2 temporary joined cells; in prokaryotes, the process by which 2 organisms bind together and 1 cell transfers DNA to the other cell through a structure called a sex pilus.
endosphore
a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions.
exotoxin
a potent, extracellular toxin secreted by some gram positive bacteria.
fever
when the body temperature gets too hot(above 96 degrees F.)
glycocalyx
a bacterial capsule that is made of a fuzzy coat of sticky sugars.
histamine
a chemical that stimulates the autonomous nervous system, secretion of gastric juices, and dilation of capillaries.
interferon
a protein that is produced by cells infected by a virus and that can protect uninfected cells from reproduction of the virus.
lysis
the disintegration of a cell by disruption of the plasma membrane.
lytic cycle
a method of a viral replication that results in the destruction of the host cell and the release of many new virus particles.
macrophage
an immune system cell that engulfs pathogens and other materials.
memory cell
an immune system B/T cell that does not respond the 1st time that it meets with the antigen or an invading cell, but that recognizes and attacks the antigen or invading cell during subsequent infections.
methanogen
an organism that produces methane gas.
penicillin
an antibiotic drug obtained from molds and used to treat/prevent various infections caused by gram-positive bacteria.
photoautotrophs
an organism that derives it's energy for food synthesis from light and is capable of using carbon dioxide as it's principle source of carbon.
prion
an infectious particle that consists only of a protein and that does not contain DNA or RNA.
protease inhibitor
a type of drug that blocks the synthesis of a new viral capsid and that is used to treat diseases such as AIDS.
reverse transcriptase
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of DNA through an RNA template.
spirillum
a spiral shaped bacterium.
suppressor T cells
a specialized sub-population of T-cells that acts to suppress activation of the immune system and therefore maintain immune system homeostasis and self tolerance.
temperate
marked by modern temperatures, weather, or climate.
tetracycline
a yellow crystaline compound, synthesized an derived from several species of the genus Streptomyces and used as an antibiotic in bacterial infections.
viroid
an infectious agent that is made up of a short, circular single strand of RNA that doesn't have a capsid.
virulent
describes a micro-organism that causes disease and that is highly infectious.
inactivated virus
a virus that cannot replicate in the host.
attenuated virus
a virus that is generically altered so that it wont cause disease.
attachment, entry, replication, assembly, lysis
Steps of the Lytic Cycle.
attachment and entry, provirus formation, cell division, provirus leaves chromosome, virus enters lytic cycle, cell lyses releasing virus
Steps of the Lysogenic Cycle.
virus
smallest particle capable of causing disease.
immune response
the reaction of the body against a foreign substance.
inflammatory response
white blood cells(phagocytes) gather and engulf foreign substances and body temperature rises.
phagocytes
white blood cells.
T-cells
mature in the thymus, and attack antigens directly.
gram stain
helps identify bacteria by the procedure of separating bacteria into 2 categories based on the structure of the structure of their cell walls.
transformation
when a prokaryote takes DNA from it's outside environment.
transduction
when a virus obtains a small part of DNA from a host prokaryote.
bioremediation
works to clean up environmental pollution by breaking down pollutants.
Lytic Cycle
a cycle that directly bursts an infected cell.
Lysogenic Cycle
a cycle that allows viruses to hide in their host cell for days, months, or years.
diplo
two
strepto
twisted chain
staphylo
clustered
coccus
round
bacillus
rod, stick
spirillium
spiral
vibrio
S or comma-shaped
botulism
Clostridium Botulininum
bacterial pneumonia
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
typhoid fever
Salmonella Typhi
pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Sphilis
Treponema Pallidum
tuberculosis
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
tetanus
Clostridium Tetani
adenine/guanine
purines- have 2 rings of Carbon and Nitrogen
cytosine/thymine
pyramidines- have 1 ring of Carbon and Nitrogen
pentose
5 Carbon sugar.
heredity
the transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring.
trait
a genetically determined variant of a characteristic.
phenotype
an organism's appearance.
genotype
an organism's genetic makeup.
homozygous
describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes.
heterozygous
describes an individual that has 2 different alleles for a trait.
downs syndrome
a genetic disorder-extra chromosome, characterized by mild to severe mental retardation, weak muscle tone, a low nasal bridge, and epicantic folds at the eyelids.
genetic marker
any distinct inheritable indicator of identity and ancestry; a chromosomal landmark that allows for the tracing of a specific region of DNA, as in the study of recombination.
genotype
the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for 1 or more specific traits.
hemophilia
any of the X-linked genetic disorders, symptomatic chiefly in males, in which excessive bleeding occurs owing to the absence/abnormality of a clotting factor in the blood.
inversion
a reversal in the order of the genes, or of a chromosome segment, within a chromosome.
molecular genetics
the study of the structure of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes.
pedigree
a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
point mutation
a mutation in which only 1 nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed.
polygenic
a characteristic that is influenced by many genes.
translocation
the movement of a segment of DNA from 1 chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of a segment.
methanogens
can only live in anaerobic environments, such as: swamps, sewers, etc.
extreme hemophiles
salt-loving; live in places such as: the Great Salt Lake, The Dead Sea, etc.
thermoacidophiles
live in acidic environments with high temperatures, such as: volcanic vents, cracks on the ocean floor, etc.